Robert Perkins and Bird Collecting in Hawai'i in the 1800's.

In 1890 the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) appointed a committee to examine the zoology of the Hawaiian Islands, then referred to as the Sandwich Islands (after the Earl of Sandwich), as interest in the flora and fauna of the Islands since their "discovery" by Europeans in 1778 was building steadily. The most marked interest in the zoology of Hawai'i was probably spurred on by three men, Blackburn, Gulick and Wilson. The reverend Thomas Blackburn was an eminent entomologist, and he spent much time collecting and displaying large numbers of native Hawaiian insects. The Blackburn's Sphinx Moth would later be named after him. The reverend John Thomas Gulick was also an entomologist but he specialised in land snails and his work resulted in his paper on the "Divergent evolution through cumulative segregation" in 1890, and his work was much debated by evolutionists in Britain, as to whether his thories would still hold true when applied to larger and more geographically diverse species groups in the Islands.

Fig.1). Above right. Dr. Robert Perkins, F.R.S. 1920; M.A., D.Sc. (Oxon), F.Z.S., F.E.S.. Photograph taken from Birds of Hawaii by George C. Munro (1982).

In 1887, Scott Barchard Wilson arrived in Hawai'i to investigate the ornithology "in a thorough way", under the tutelage of Alfred Newton of Cambridge University. He spent eighteen months collecting birds in the Hawaiian Islands and when these specimens were returned to Britain and displayed to the BAAS and other zoological groups they caused a great deal of excitement, much as Blackburn's insects had a couple of years before. By 1889 Wilson had decided not to continue to examine the avian fauna of Hawai'i, despite attempts by Newton to carry on the work, and so a new researcher was required. The BAAS and Sandwich Islands Committee had a limited amount of funding to support new investigations (£100) and additional funding was sought from the Royal Society, however in the meantime Sir Lionel Walter Rothschild had dispatched Henry C. Palmer to Hawai'i to collect specimens and hopefully reap the rewards of finding exciting new species, long before the Sandwich Islands Committee would be able to secure funding. In 1891 the Royal Society provided an additional £200 funding to the BAAS and the Committee also hoped that some funding would come from wealthy Hawaiian residents, however as explained in Manning (1986) this did not go entirely to plan, "David Sharp, who was to remain the Committee's secretary throughout its history, wrote on November 8th 1890 to A. Hoffnung, the Hawaiian charge d'affaires in London, stating the Sandwich Islands Committee's plan to investigate the Islands' fauna. Sharp carefully noted that sums appropriated by the legislature or donated by Hawaiian citizens would be "expended in the islands" and would " the wealth of the islands, rather than diminish it". Sharp also asked about the afficacy of distributing a circular to acquaint residents with the Committee's aims (Sharp 1890). The charge d'affires passed Sahrp's letter to J.A. Cummins, minister of foreign affairs, who received it in January 1891. Cummin's speedy answer noted that the legislature's recent adjournment made governemnt funds unavailable. Cummins did offer to distribute circulars if the Committee sent them to him (Cummins 1891). Regrettably, available copies of Cummins' letter conatin a copyist's error that inadvertently deleted as much as a page from the text. The text jumps from "Unfortunately the legislature has recently adjourned" to "and of much larger and wealthier States but regret is expressed on all sides that so many of our historical treaties have passed into the hands of Collectors of Foreign Countries" (Cummins 1891). The Committee, however, considered the reply a "very favourable answer" and apparently had no objection to Cummins' suggestion, perhaps made on the missing page, that Hawai'i funding sources "would be likely to cooperate, provided that a portion of the collections obtained should be ultimately placed in the Museum at Honolulu [B.P. Bishop Museum]".

It just so happened that Honolulu banker Charles Reed Bishop, the founder of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu (which he named after his wife) was visiting Europe at the time and he was able to attend several meetings with the Committee, however he was cautious about providing funding stating that "naturalists and scientists have their pet hobbies on which they would spend or induce others to expend almost any amount" (Bishop 1898). This sentiment was compounded when William Tufts Brigham, the first curator of the Museum, told Bishop and Sharp that the Committee should not send an entomologist to the Islands as he himself had explored the Islands for insects and had found very little "except common American ones" (Perkins 1947). A trustee of the Museum Henry Holmes stated that Brigham had made "a huge blunder" by stating this, as Brigham was unaware of the work previously carried out by Blackburn and the potential for discovery. Holmes felt that the Committee was given a poor opinion of the Bishop Museum by Brigham's remarks.

In 1891 a Joint Committee was formed between the BAAS and the Royal Society and for 23 years the Committee provided funding and a collector to publish results on Hawaiian fauna and flora. Once the new Joint Committee had been formed a collector was chosen. The first choice had been L.W. Wiglesworth, although other international candidates were also considered but in the end the Comittee decided upon R.C.L. Perkins.

Perkins arrived in Honolulu on March 10th 1892 and soon went enthusiastically to work in the field, although he was apparently less enthusiastic about keeping those back in England informed of his progress, not writing to them for over two weeks after his arrival. Although he started off on O'ahu he soon found the collecting to be rather poor and decided to try new more productive areas and he crossed to Kona on Hawai'i where he remained for several months observing native species "...the Oo could be seen on the wing, sometimes six or eight at a time...Feeding on the fruit of the leie could be seen the Hawaiian Crow commonly and the Ou in great abundance...The picture of this noisy, active and often quarrelsome assembly of birds, many of them of brilliant colours was one never to be forgotten". (Perkins 1892-1897). Today only the Crow survives in very small numbers.

In mid-October he returned to O'ahu and then in May 1893 Perkins moved from O'ahu to Moloka'i, where he discovered a new species of mamo - Drepanis funerea, the Black Mamo. Above right: Black Mamo by Frohawk.

Perkins spent the next 23 years exploring the Hawaiian Islands and reporting back to the Joint Committee and the culmination of this mammoth effort by Perkins, Newton and Sharp was the publication of Fauna Hawaiiensis which was published between 1896 and 1913, the last part being completed in 1913, although as with most parts of this story did not go entirely according to plan, with some volumes not being sold in the U.S. to avoid paying a hefty import duty and thus missing out on recouping printing and publication costs. However, eventually the whole work was published and in the final report to the BAAS, Sharp wrote "Fauna Hawaiiensis is the true report [of the work] of this Committee". The full story is a fascinating account of 19th Century science and collecting and "The Sandwich Islands Committee, Bishop Museum, and R.C.L. Perkins: Cooperative Zoological Exploration and Publication" (Manning 1986) is a thorough and very readable account of the formation of the Committee, the work and collecting schedule of Perkins and the final publication of Fauna Hawaiiensis.

The following extracts are from Perkins' diaries and are reproduced here by kind courtesy of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, check out their fantastic website at

Moloka'i Collecting May-June 1893. (Note that many of the species names have now been changed/altered in line with taxonomic changes).

" It can be seen from this diary that I very rarely ventured out without being hampered in my insect collecting with a gun and all the necessaries for bird-collecting, and that a huge proportion of my time was occupied by the latter. It also gives some idea of the nature of the ground over which I collected during this period and subsequently. The small wooden shack at Makakupia had been built, I believe, from the remains of a rather large house, which had been burnt, and was on what might be called the lowest edge of more or less continuous forest. When I occupied it the door (which faced makai) was off, and kept inside the building which was full of mice. One night I used this trap, resting one end on a short peg with a string attached and scattering some rice beneath it. After a while, lying in the dark and holding the string I pulled away the support and found I had killed 18 mice in one go. places where I had proceeded for quite long distances on moss-covered branches of trees without touching the ground, which lay 5-7 feet beneath the branches on which I walked, and consisted of bare, black mud, one could now walk on the ground. These were the most favorable places for shooting, as it was only necessary to mark the exact position of a bird when one shot, go straight to the spot and drop through the branches on to the knee-deep mud beneath, where the body could be seen at once on the bare ground.

May 12th. Packed up to Makakupaia and afterwards went out with gun for a short time. Shot two Chlorodrepanis and one Phaeornis. The latter very like the species on Hawaii in habits, frequently rising off its perch and singing on the wing. Also shivers in the same way as P. obscura.

May 13th. Started very early in the morning with gun and went upwards. Saw plenty of Chlorodrepanis, Phaeornis and the two red birds [Himatione and Vestiaria]. A long way up I shot a fine male flammea on a dead branch. Its habit and voice are exactly those of Oreomyza. Subsequently I shot one or two more, both male and female. It then came on very wet and foggy and after a vain attempt for several hours to find my trail home, most of which time I was wading about in a bog often waist deep I endeavored to reach th ebeach. While still 4 or 5 miles from this, night came on and I lay where I was in soaking wet clothes for the night. At daybreak still wet through, I started on and reached Kaunakakai about 10am having struck the coast miles east of that place. My birds were all in a rotten condition when I reached there and I was only able to skin two male flammea. [I have a further note of this unfortunate day that having been without food since 5am on the next morning I ate numbers of Nasturtium seeds, which blistered my tongue and mouth and I also drank salty water out of a pond at Kawela, which made me sick, and I did not properly recover for several days.] Above right: Moloka'i Creeper by Frohawk.

May 18th. Can still hardly swallow at all and I lay till late, abot 9am, then tidied up things and went mauka. Got male and female of red-bodied Prosopis and more of the black one.

May 20th. I shot a female or young male flammea and also the adult male, but the latter flew a little way before falling and was lost. Saw a native duck and some interesting Agrionines. Mouth and throat better, but not well.

May 23rd. Saw one flammea female, which I shot and could not find. Afterwards I saw two pairs, one of which I shot, badly mutilating the skull of the male, the other pair I could not shoot at, the ridge being so narrow and the sides so steep, they would probably have been lost, if killed. Later I saw a single young male, very prettily marked with red, but again I was unable to shhot. I shot a male and female Chlorodrepanis, neither of them in very good plumage.

May 24th. Went up gulch till I could go no further, then on to same ridge as yesterday. Followed this away up over very bad boggy ground till I came out on some boggy openings, full of violets in bloom. On the way I picked up a couple of the bronzy Carabids (beetles, eds) and a few small striped (Kaliko) shells. Saw several flammea both in the gulch and on the ridge beyond, but had only one shot, which was a bad miss! Then followed my old blazed trail through the thick forest. Following up a flammea and just as I was going to shoot I saw a black-looking bird in a very dense brush 8 or 10 yards off. Saw its crest and luckily rememberd to use teh larger charge, as the very small one in the right barrel would never have penetrated the thick leaves. I soon handled my first Palmeria, a fine bird, a male.

June 1st. Wrote to Prof. Newton, also to Honolulu for supplies. Took it easy on the way down and collected a good many Aculeates. Note the long hairy palai of one of the Odyneri. The 'California Linnet' is very abundant on the lower slopes of the mountains here.

June 3rd. Introduced to McCartney the school-teacher and in the afternoon went out with him. Saw many Stilts. I picked up one just hatched. The old birds were very excited flying around us and darting down within a yard of our heads. I put the young one down on a bare place and we walked away for a few yards, but when we turned round it had vanished. It must have been able to run well, though it had made no effort to escape before. The old birds were very amusing, trying to lure us away. They would pitch on the ground about 15 yards away and squat down. At other times they would stand with wings somewhat raised or horizontal and shake them like a young bird when it is being fed, drawing in their necks and puffing out all their feathers. We could not find the young one again in spite of a long search. When I first saw it, it was in the shallow water, its beak buried in the mud and appeared half choked.

June 13th. Soon after entering the densest forest I saw a flammea (female or young). Took a shot at this, but instead of dropping straight the wretched creature came down aslant and was hopelessly lost in the dense brush. Soon after I saw a pair, male and female. The former was timd and at last disappeared altogether. I shot the female which dropped straight and in no (sic) very dense brush, yet I could not find it. Disgusted with the birds I now took a spell at beetle collecting for some hours...I now began to look out for birds again and soon came across flammea - a small company together. I got four shots, and secured 2 males and 2 females in fine condition. I now had to start for camp and arrived back just as sunset. When near the spot where my tent was first placed I saw a fine male flammea very scary, no doubt the one I had seen on former occasions. I bagged him after quite a long chase.

June 18th. A fine, calm, hot morning, with the mountains entirely free from mist. Looking up I saw a fine male Palmeria its red feathers glistening in the sun. He showed signs of alarm, so I shot quickly, a rather long, but open shot. Instead of falling straight he came down at an angle and I knew at once was sure to be lost. I spent about an hour searching. The female was with him and I could easily have shot her, but should never have found her where she would have dropped. After a time I again heard the strange gurgling noise followed immediately by an evident whistle of alarm. I stood still and whistled in reply. The bird a fine male, approached to within 10 yards, when I shot with a very small charge. It dropped quite straight, but again I failed to find the bird, amongst the dense growth mixed up with the masses of dead leaves and the ground full of holes. At least 25 p.c. of the birds I see I cannot shoot (for fear of not being able to gather them) and the same percentage I lose, although I shoot at no bird, rare or common, unless I think I have a good chance of picking it up. It was now 3pm and I had been wading about in knee-deep mud and clearing a path with an axe for some hours, when suddenly I heard a very different sound, a note as clear as a bell, with just the least resemblance to that of the O'o. I felt almost sure I had come across Palmer's new bird and practically certain of this when I saw fly onward a good-sized black bird. It settled about 25 yards ahead, but I could not see it for the density of the brush. Every four or five seconds it uttered its remarkable call. I forced on for almost ten yards and then I saw the bird clearly, perched across a bough straight in front of me and obviously very uneasy. I fired at once and the bird dropped straight into thick brush, but I marked a low twig it shook in its fall, and gathered it at once. To my surprise as I picked it up I saw no sign of yellow ear-feathers nor any yellow at all, but before I had time to fully realize this I heard just ahead the same clear cry. Throwing down axe and hat and the bird into the latter I pushed on and saw another similar bird, no doubt the mate of the one just shot. It was restless and I got a view only of its head and part of its body. However it dropped as straight as the first one and in a clear place, so that I easily found it. Then I saw that I had no Oo but a Hemignathus-like creature with shortened lower mandible and excessively strong smell, characteristic of the Drepanididae and of the Hawaiian 'finches'. Above right: Black Mamo by Frohawk.

June 21st. After some time I heard a whistle, which I knew to be teh call note of Palmeria, so I whistled in return and waited. Gradually the answering call came nearer and nearer, but owing to the dense brush I could not see teh bird. At last it appeared, peering at me from a screen of leaves, not three yards from my gun and too near to be shot at. Thence it flew to the top of a neighboring Ohia, where I could have easily killed it, but it would have been simply murder, as there could have been no hope of getting it without a dog. It was now joined by another, no doubt a female, and I watched them feeding on the dead moss-covered boughs, seeking, no doubt, spiders, caterpillars and perhaps beetles. After some time the pair flew off together and I went on. Within a hundred yards or so of the spot where I had shot the others on the 18th, I saw another of the black Drepanid. Its cry was not nearly so loud and clear as that of former and probably an alarm note, so I took a quick shot. It started falling some ten yards from where it had been sttled and was utterly lost. A few of its back feathers were blow back to me by the wind.

June 25th. I had been stopping every hundred yards or so and whistling the call-note of Palmeria to no effect. At last it answered, and two birds appeared on the top of an Ohia about 40 yards away. I sat down and kept on whistling. This brought one of them to the top of a dead tree in easy range, but with very rough ground and dense vegetation beneath. I shot killing this bird and scaring off the other. Mine luckily hitched in the top of an Ohia instead of dropping to the ground and by climbing I got it at once. It was a young and quite immature bird. Still farther on I called up two Palmeria. One came in easy range and I bagged it at once, the other was very scary but at last I got a shot. It fell at a distance and was lost. Soon I got another fine male, and , as I thought, saw another approaching slowly. It came nearer and nearer as I continued whistling and then I saw it was one of the black Drepanids! I shot it and easily picked it up. This was a young bird with the yellow of the base of the beak continued a long way forwards, especially on the sides. Then I got another young Palmeria, which was sucking nectar of the Ohia flowers and finally I called an adult and two young to me. The young ones began to feed at the Lehua blossoms overhead with quick gliding movements like Himatione sanguinea. I shot at one but neither saw it fall nor fly away, as the smoke of the gun blew back in my face. the old bird flew to another tree. I called it back and shot with a very small charge - the only shot I had left. It flew to a tree about 20 yards awau, being hit hard. The last cartridge I used at the young bird and caught it in my hands as it fell. I now went to look for the old bird, a fine male. It lay quite dead under the tree I had marked it into. My ammunition all gone I started on the long, wet journey back, but had I not wasted 3 cartridges on the flammea I might have bagged two more Palmeria and another of the black Depanid on the way home, which I reached at 7pm.

Kaua'i Collecting April-June 1894.

May 16th. Got off steamer at Eleele and walked to Makaweli.

May 17th. Went up about 6 miles. Turned out wet when I got above range of Pheidole (ant). Saw oo and Hemignathus and got very few insects, but saw Rhyncogonus and Oodemas.

May 21st. Oo not a great honeysucker here eats caterpillars largely and other insects. Saw it catch one on the wing. Mostly in pairs and probably with young.

May 22nd. Went further in. Birds quite scarce. Shot an "akialoa" full of larvae and fragments of a Brachypeplus beetle. It was not in good plumage.

May 23rd. Chiefly beetles collected and enumerated. "Shot one or two common birds". Sat up all night collecting moths.

May 25th. Went up with a gun. Shot "akialoas", Oreomyza, Loxops, Phaeornis and Acrulocercus.

May 26th. Shot a "few common birds". Collected many beetles. Munro came up in the evening and skinned my birds for me, while I collected moths.

June 3rd. Without gun, but saw very fine male hemignathus.

June 11th. Went up Hanapepe Valley to stay for a few days. Shot 'akialoa' and got a few other things. Above right: Kaua'i Akialoa by Frohawk.

June 12th and following days. Stayed up Hanapepe till 15th and collected a good many insects, male and female and young of Akialoa from same nest. The Oo and elepaio remained in pairs after breeding. I shot 2 male white spotted 'elepaio' each of which was paired with a rufous female. Most of the birds were very bare of feathers and in a moulting condition. Oo cheifly feeds on larvae etc under bark which it rattles with its beak - so does the akialoa, but at times it probes holes in the tree trunks up to the base of its bill. Both these birds are fond of cockroaches and spiders.

June 16th. Left for Honolulu and then made my second visit to Lanai.

Kaua'i Collecting April-June 1895.

April 9th. Went up the valley at Makaweli, as I wanted to get a native duck "auku" for skinning. [This is of course the Hawaiian name for Night Heron, eds.] Went up ridge to first branch, then up the right branch of the stream. I first flushed a pair of duck, then a batch of three, but a long way off. i took a shot at these and hit one hard, but it managed to top the gulch, though with difficulty, and was lost to me.

April 13th. Went up with a gun and took also a net. The birds are all far back. I saw plenty of Loxops and Oreomyza. The Ohia is in full flower and consequently the two red birds swarm everywhere, whereas in June last year there were, comparatively, few of these. I could hear no sound of the song or call of the Nukupu (sic) but I caught a glimpse of what may have been a female on the wing.

April 14th. Skinned three birds shot yesterday Hemignathus male, Oreomyza male, and one poor specimen of Loxops (sex?). Today I have seen none of the scarcer birds.

April 15th. Same way as yesterday and went quickly for about 3 miles, not staying to collect on this part, as I was after birds. I saw a pair of Hemignathus and killed one cleanly, yet I could not find it. Afterwards I shot one as it sucked the Lehua flowers. Also shot one Loxops. I saw Oreomyza twice visit the Lehua flowers and apparently for the nectar. As usual most of them were on the trunks, hunting very methodically for insects, crossing constantly from one side to the other as they climbed up. A good day's collecting except for birds. The flycatcher, thrush and perhaps the Oo seem less numerous than they were last June, but owing to the Ohia being in flower, the Iiwi and Apapane are in thousands. I also hear Amakiki (sic) everywhere, though it was scarce last June. The Ou is very numerous in the flowering trees.

April 21st. I shot a female Hemignathus, which was no doubt nesting, as it contained a lerge egg, just ready for extrusion. Later on I shot another, a male in non-breeding plumage and dull and I saw another. Above right: O'u by Frohawk.

May 4th. ...went to Mana with Munro, but the sands would not bark at all. [Referring to Barking Sands on the SW side of the Island, Eds.] Found Stilt eggs and freshly hatched alae ? young.

May 12th. Heard the Phaeornis several times but could not get a shot. Heard it at 6.30 and saw it for a moment, but out of shot and very wild.

May 13th. Went again to find this Phaeornis and tramped around the place from 7am to 5pm. Heard it once or twice during the day and at 5pm not very far off. Soon after heard the male sing, song just like that of Nukupu (sic) but seemed louder. Repeated the song about six times then began its squeak of alarm. Evidently the female was with it. The male once flew over my head as I sat on the fork of a Koa tree, but I got no shot and returned home at dusk.

May 14th. Up at 5 and out by 7a,. Took up position to wait for Phaeornis. Ws very cold and wet and by 1pm had only once heard it in the distance. At 3pm heard the male sing. At 5pm one flew over my head and alighted at a distance in front, out of range. This was clearly the female as the male was behind me. Soon he settled just over my head and I could almost touch him with the gun. He then flew behind me and settled on a dead limb 20 yards away, and I shot him, but it took me two hours before I could find him as I lost sight of him after shooting owing to the glare of the sun in my eyes.

May 15th. Went in the forest rather low down and worked up. Heard a Phaeornis and shot it. It was a male and quite tame. Shot also a male Phaeornis mysidestina for comparison with the small species. Noted the difference in the skulls.

May 16th. Shot male P. palmeri in spotted plumage but without the testes very large as in breeding specimens.

May 22nd. Came down to Mr. Knudsen's in 3hours and 10 minutes. Had lunch with him and his son gave me a dead specimen of his new shell H.Knudseni Baldw. Mr.K. gave me many details about Halemanu, and the great fire (about 1864?) that raged for a fortnight in the forest. I was much struck by the great richness botanically of the Halemanu forest."

Although it would be nice to be able to devote more space to the actual movements of Perkins during his years in Hawai'i and detail his findings, space, time and in some cases copyright mean that many interesting portions have to be left out, however those interested in Perkins and the BAAS Sandwich Islands Committee are pointed in the direction of the references below, particularly Manning (1986).


BISHOP, C.R. 1898. Letter to C.M. Hyde, July 5. Ms. in BPBM Letters In, Bk.2, p.218, BPBM Archives.

BERNICE P. BISHOP MUSEUM. 1893. Copies of Perkins Diaries. Ms. S.C. Perkins. Box 1. Box 1.1. Molokai May-June 1893. Extracts printed by kind permission of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

BERNICE P. BISHOP MUSEUM. 1894. Copies of Perkins Diaries. Ms. S.C. Perkins. Box 1. Box 1.2 Kaua'i 1894. Extracts printed by kind permission of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

BERNICE P. BISHOP MUSEUM.1895. Copies of Perkins Diaries. Ms. S.C. Perkins. Box 1. Box 1.2 Kaua'i 1895. Extracts printed by kind permission of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

CUMMINS, J.A. 1891. Letter to S.B.F. Hoffnung, Jan 8. Typescript copy in Foreign Office and Executive Letter Bk. 8, Hoffnung-Hawaiian Legation, London 1882-1893, Hawaii State Archives.

MANNING, A. 1986. The Sandwich Islands Committee, Bishop Museum, and R. C. L. Perkins: Cooperative Zoological Exploration and Publication. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, Volume 26. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

MEARNS, B. and R. MEARNS. 1999. Biographis for Birdwatchers. Academic Press, Oxford.

MEARNS, R. .and B. MEARNS. 1998. The Bird Collectors. Academic Press, Oxford.

MEARNS, R. and B. MEARNS. 1999. Audubon to Xantus. Academic Press, Oxford.

MUNRO, G. C. 1982. Birds of Hawaii. Ninth Printing. Tuttle and Company, Inc. Vermont.

PERKINS, R. C. L. 1892-1897. Diaries. Copies, ms and typed, made by Perkins in 1936. Ms. SC Perkins, box 1, BPBM Library.

PERKINS, R. C. L. 1893. Diaries. Ms. S.C. Perkins. Box 1. Box 1.1. Molokai May-June 1893. Extracts printed by kind permission of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

PERKINS, R. C. L. 1894. Diaries. Ms. S.C. Perkins. Box 1. Box 1.2 Kaua'i 1894. Extracts printed by kind permission of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

PERKINS, R. C. L. 1895. Diaries. Ms. S.C. Perkins. Box 1. Box 1.2 Kaua'i 1895. Extracts printed by kind permission of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i.

PERKINS, R. C. L. 1947. Letter to G.C. Munro, June 24. Ms. SC Munro 13.3, BPBM Library.

PRATT, H. D., P. L. BRUNER and D. G. BERRETT. 1987. A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Oxford.

SHARP, 1890. Letter to S. B. F. Hoffnung, Nov 8. Ms. copy in ms. in Foreign Office and Executive File, Charge d'affaires, London, July-Dec. 1890. Hawaii State Archives.

WILSON, S. and S. BUFF. 1989. Frohawk's Birds of Hawaii.. Wellfleet, New Jersey.

Christian Melgar, Worthing West Sussex, UK. 2002.

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