ANNOTATED LIST OF HAWAI'I'S

BREEDING BIRDS: PART II



The Annotated List of Hawai'i's Breeding Birds gives details of where to find all the regular Breeding Hawaiian Species - Endemic, Indigenous and Introduced. All status notes at the head of each species refers to the species breeding status, for example, Pied-billed Grebe has only nested on Hawai'i but is recorded occasionally on other Islands as a migrant, thus its status is listed as resident on Hawai'i. All photographs © by Christian Melgar, Jack Jeffrey and Jim Denny, unless otherwise stated. Some additional information shown here supplied from the USFWS website. Also see the Annotated List of Hawai'i's Regular Non-Breeding Migrants and the Sightings Archive. Due to the large amount of information this page may take a while to downlaod.



The following Taxonomic List generally follows the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) United States Bird Species List and incorporates changes made in the 42nd, 43rd and 44th Supplements to the Check-list, as published in The Auk 117: 847-858 (2000); 119:897-906 (2002); 120:923-932 (2003). Alternative taxonomic orders and nomenclature for most species occurring in Hawai'i can be found on the Avibase Website.

The following information is included for each species at the head of each account:

Species Status: E = Endemic; I = indigenous; * = Introduced.

Island Occurrence: Each Island is named individually.

Time of Occurrence: e.g. Migrant nester, Introduced Resident

Habitat Occurrence: e.g. Pelagic, Open Country, Upland Forest.

THIS PAGE

Hawaiian Crow ('Alala) - Corvus hawaiiensis
Kaua'i 'Elepaio
- Chasiempis sandwichensis sclateri
O'ahu 'Elepaio
- Chasiempis sandwichensis gayi
Hawai'i 'Elepaio
- Chasiempis sandwichensis sandwichensis
Eurasian Sky Lark
- Alauda arvensis
Red-vented Bulbul
- Pycnonotus cafer
Red-whiskered Bulbul
- Pycnonotus jocosu
Japanese Bush-Warbler
- Cettia diphone
Nihoa Millerbird
- Acrocephalus familiaris kingi
White-rumped Shama
- Copsychus malabaricus
Oma`o
- Myadestes obscurus
Puaiohi
- Myadestes palmeri
Greater Necklaced Laughing-Thrush
- Garrulax pectoralis
Grey-sided Laughing-Thrush
- Garrulax caerulatus
Melodious Laughing-Thrush (Hwamei)
- Garrulax canorus
Red-billed Leiothrix
- Leiothrix lutea
Japanese White-eye
- Zosterops japonica
Northern Mockingbird
- Mimus polyglottos
Common Myna
- Acridotheres tristis
Yellow-faced Grassquit
- Tiaris olivacea
Saffron Finch
- Sicalis flaveola
Red-crested Cardinal
- Paroaria coronata
Yellow-billed Cardinal
- Paroaria capitata
Northern Cardinal
- Cardinalis cardinalis
Western Meadowlark
- Sturnella neglecta
House Finch
- Carpodacus mexicanus
Yellow-fronted Canary
- Serinus mozambicus
Common Canary
- Serinus canaria
Nihoa Finch
- Telespiza ultima
Laysan Finch - Telespiza cantans
Palila
- Loxioides bailleui
Maui Parrotbill
- Pseudonestor xanthophrys
O`ahu `Amakihi
- Hemignathus chloris
Hawai'i `Amakihi
- Hemignathus virens
Kaua'i `Amakihi
- Hemignathus kauaiensis
`Anianiau
- Hemignathus parvus
`Akiapola`au
- Hemignathus munroi
`Akikiki (Kaua'i Creeper) - Oreomystis bairdi
Hawai'i Creeper
- Oreomystis mana
O'ahu Creeper
- Paroreomyza maculata
Maui `Alauahio (Maui Creeper)
- Paroreomyza montana
Hawai'i `Akepa
- Loxops coccineus coccineus
`Akeke`e
- Loxops caeruleirostris
I`iwi
- Vestiaria coccinea
`Akohekohe
- Palmaria dolei
`Apapane
- Himatone sanguinea
Po`ouli
- Melamprosops phaeosoma
House Sparrow
- Passer domesticus
Red-cheeked Cordonbleu
- Uraeginthus bengalus
Lavender Waxbill
- Estrilda caerulescans
Orange-cheeked Waxbill
- Estrilda melpoda
Black-rumped Waxbill
- Estrilda troglodytes
Common Waxbill
- Estrilda astrild
Red Avadavat
- Amandava amandava
African Silverbill
- Lonchura cantans
Nutmeg Mannikin
- Lonchura punctulata
Chestnut Munia
- Lonchura atricapilla
Java Sparrow
- Padda oryzivora

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Hawaiian Goose (Nene) - Branta sandvicensis
Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)
- Anas wyvilliana
Laysan Duck
- Anas laysanensis
Chukar
- Alectoris chukar
Grey Francolin
- Francolinus pondicerianus
Black francolin
- Francolinus francolinus
Erckel's Francolin
- Francolinus erckelli
Red-billed Francolin
- Francolinus adspersus
Japanese Quail
- Coturnix japonica
Red Junglefowl
- Gallus gallus
Kalij Pheasant
- Lophura leucomelana
Ring-necked Pheasant
- Phasianus colchicus
Common Peafowl
- Pavo cristatus
Wild Turkey
- Meleagris gallopavo
California Quail
- Callipepla californica
Gambel's Quail
- Callipepepla gambelli
Pied-billed Grebe
- Podilymbus podiceps
Laysan Albatross
- Phoebastria immutablis
Black-footed Albatross
- Phoebastria nigripes
Hawaiian Petrel
- Pterodroma sandwichensis
Bonin Petrel
- Pterodroma hypoleuca
Bulwers Petrel
- Bulweria bulwerri
Wedge-tailed Shearwater
- Puffinus pacificus
Newell's Shearwater
- Puffinus newelli
Christmas Shearwater
- Puffinues nativitatus
Band-rumped Storm-Petrel
- Oceanodroma castro
Tristram's Storm-Petrel
- Oceanodroma tristrami
White-tailed Tropicbird
- Phaethon lepturus
Red-tailed Tropicbird
- Phaethon rubicauda
Masked Booby - Sula dactylatra
Brown Booby
- Sula leucogaster
Red-footed Booby
- Sula sula
Great Frigatebird
- Fregata minor
Lesser Frigatebird
- Fregata ariel
Cattle Egret
- Bubulcus ibis
Black-crowned Night-Heron
- Nycticorax nyticorax
Hawaiian Hawk (`Io)
- Buteo solitarius
Hawaiian Moorhen
- Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis
Hawaiian Coot
- Fulica alai
Hawaiian Stilt
- Himantopus mexicanus knudseni
Little Tern
- Sterna albifrons
Least Tern
- Sterna antillarum
Grey-backed Tern
- Sterna lunata
Sooty Tern
- Sterna fuscata
Brown Noddy
- Anous stolidus
Black Noddy
- Anous minutus melanogenys
Blue-grey Noddy
- Procelsterna cerulea
White Tern
- Gygis alba
Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse
- Pterocles exustus
Rock Dove
- Columba livia
Spotted Dove
- Streptopeia chinensis
Zebra Dove
- Geopelia striata
Mourning Dove
- Zenaida macroura
Rose-ringed Parakeet
- Psittacula krameri
Red-Crowned Amazon
- Amazona viridigenalis
Barn-Owl
- Tyto alba
Short-eared Owl
- Asio flammeus sandwichensis
Mariana Swiftlet
- Collocalia bartschi
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HAWAIIAN CROW ('ALALA) (Corvus hawaiensis)

Endemic - Extinct in the Wild

Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes similar
. The 'Alala is all black with brown tinged wings. The bill is large and stout and black, as are the legs. The iris is brown in adults and blue in the young. (18-20inches) Calls: Crow-like "cawk" or "ca-wack". Other vocalizations include growls, which are very raucous and loud in the breeding season. Their vocalizations are more musical and varied than most other crows.

The Hawaiians called this bird the 'ALALA, which means to "crow", "caw" or "cry". Also Ala means "to rise" and la means "the sun" and probably refers to the fact that the birds were particularly noisy at dawn.

The last surviving Crow species in Hawai'i, but for how long is anybody's guess. In the wild these shy and elusive birds spend most of their time in the forests and are seldom seen above them in the sky. Endemic to the Big Island, this crow favours the upland forests between 3,000 to 6,000 feet in elevation on
Hualalai and on the west slopes of Mauna Loa. They are most often found in `ohi`a or `ohi`a-koa forests. They are social birds that travel in family groups. The `Alala is omnivorous, preferring fruits of native trees and shrubs, but also eating insects, mice, and sometimes the nestlings of small birds. Breeding usually occurs from March through July. The `Alala lays one to five greenish-blue eggs, but only two survive. The family groups stay together until the young learn to fly and eat on their own. The `Alala’s natural predator is the `Io (Hawaiian Hawk), which is also an endangered species. Chicks are very vulnerable to tree-climbing rats, and if they happen to fall out of their nests, to cats, dogs, and mongooses.

In the late 20th Century very few birds were left surviving on the Kona side of The
Big Island, and their favoured location was in a closed refuge, where disturbance was kept to a minimum. Only two individuals (a mated pair) were left in the wild during 2001 and 2002. The pair attempted to nest but abandoned their nest in late June. The female was probably too old to breed and last laid eggs in 1996. Unfortunately by the end of 2004 the species was extinct in the wild. A small captive group is kept on Maui in the hopes of reintroduction in the future, but no captive-reared birds have lasted long in the wild and most of the birds are old and related to one another and so the outlook for this project is bleak. There are currently no plans to release any more captive birds.

Since 1973, there has been extensive research on the Hawaiian Crow. They were once abundant in the lower forests and parklands of the western and southern sides of the island. When coffee and fruit farmers began shooting them in the 1890s, their population was already declining. By 1978, only 50 to 150 crows were believed to exist. Disease, predation, and loss of suitable habitat due to grazing and logging are also factors in the decline of the Hawaiian Crow.

The `Alala was listed as an endangered species in 1967 under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The `Alala Recovery Plan was published in 1989 with the goal to ultimately remove the crow from the list of Endangered and Threatened Species. This would require the increase of the number of `Alala in the wild to at least 400 birds!




1993-1999 - Of 27 captive-reared young birds released beginning in 1993, 14 are known to have died (7 killed by 'Io (Hawaiian Hawk), four died from toxoplasmosis acquired probably from feral cats, two died from bacterial and fungal infections, and one of unknown cause), six more are missing and presumed dead, four were returned to captivity as protection from predators and disease and to preserve genetic diversity, and three survive in the wild (one released 1998, two in 1997). Apart from a few instances of trying to form pair bonds, none of these younf birds when released attempted to breed. Of the 12 original wild birds known in 1993, eight were confirmed dead over succeeding years and one more went missing in 1999 and is presumed dead. Two of the three remaining have been a long-time pair, and last produced a malformed egg in 1997 and still continue to nest build in the spring, however all three are considered senescent seniors and no longer productive (USFWS et al.)

2001 - A mated pair remained in the wild and attempted to nest again this year but abandoned the nest in late June. The female has not laid an egg since 1996 or 1997 (Greg Klingler).

2004
- The species was declared extinct in the wild by the end of 2004 (2004 IUCN Red List). Several birds remained in captivity on Maui.




Link: Hawaiian Crow
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KAUA'I 'ELEPAIO (Chasiempis sandwichensis)

Endemic

Kaua'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

This is the dullest plumaged of the Elepaio family. Adults are gray-brown above and pale below with the breast splotched with gray and black. The tail is long with white marks and often cocked. The rump is white. The throat tends to be white. Immatures (see photo, left) are rusty above and pale buff or off-white below, with buff wingbars. (5.5 inches) Calls: Squeaky "chup-chup" or chatter. Song: A loud whistled "El-e-pai-o".

The Hawaiians called this species 'ELEPAIO, named after the birds song. They considered the species the guardian spirit of canoe makers in the forest which protected them when they walked there.

This inquisitive endemic flycatcher is unfortunately restricted, as with nearly all Hawaiian endemic forest birds, to the higher elevation forest on
Kaua'i, where its behavior of following hikers and walkers renders it one of the more conspicuous and more often seen endemic species. It is most easily seen in Koke'e State Park, especially along trails North and East of the Museum, although it is also seen regularly on trails between the museum and Waimea Canyon Overlook. It is often heard before it is seen, but usually approaches closely and may follow visitors along the trails for quite a way. It is commonly seen along the Pihea Ridge Trail, the Alakai Swamp Trail and the Kawaikoi Stream Trail. It can often be seen unobtrusively feeding near the Kalalau Overlook parking lot. Away from Kokee birds have been seen quite regularly at lower elevation near Alexander Reservoir, mauka (mountainside) of Kalaheo. There is a dirt track just west of the town which goes up to the reservoir, although this can become unpassable by non-four wheel drive vehicles if it has rained. The birds are usually to be found further up the ridge from the reservoir past the Wahiawa Bog, which can become very soggy in wet weather.
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O'AHU 'ELEPAIO (Chasiempis sandwichensis gayi)

Endemic

O'ahu

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest; Lowland Forest

Similar in adult plumage to the Kaua'i 'Elepaio but are rich brown above with pale underparts and buffy streaks on flanks. The throat is white with black splotches and a darker breast. The immature is buffy colored. (5.5 inches) Calls: Squeaky "chup-chup" or chatter. Song: A loud whistled "El-e-pai-o".

The Hawaiians called this species 'ELEPAIO, named after the birds song. They considered the species the guardian spirit of canoe makers in the forest which protected them when they walked there.

The O'ahu Elepaio, is very uncommon in the central mountains of
O'ahu, and may be listed as an endangered species, as its numbers are apparently small and declining. It is only found in the Waianaes and Southern Ko'olau Mountain ranges. The two most likely sites for this species are Kuli'ou'ou and Ka'alakei Valleys. Considered by some to warrant specific status this species has not yet been split by the AOU.
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HAWAI'I 'ELEPAIO (Chasiempis sandwichensis sandwichensis)

Endemic

Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Again similar to the other 'Elepaio's but found in two color phases: Wet forest birds are boldly marked brown above, pale below with chestnut flank streaks and the chestnut breast splotched with black. The throat color varies from white in females to white with heavy black splotching in males. Dry forest birds are similar but are paler below with whitish head and throat. Immature is dull buffy gray. (5.5 inches)
Calls: Squeaky "chup-chup" or chatter. Song: A loud whistled "El-e-pai-o".

The Hawaiians called this species 'ELEPAIO, named after the birds song. They considered the species the guardian spirit of canoe makers in the forest which protected them when they walked there.

Three separate races occur on the
Big Island. The darkest form can be found in Hawai'i Volcanoes NP, especially in Kipuka Ki along the Mauna Loa Road and at Thurston Lava Tube, although here tourists can make seeing one difficult if there are large coach groups present. Kipukas along the Saddle Road are also excellent spots to see these birds. The paler form can be seen in mamane forests, particularly at Puu Laau. The form on the Kona side, which is intermediate in plumage between the other two, can be seen at Manuka State Park and in the South Kona Forest Reserve, though is less numerous than the other forms.
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EURASIAN SKY LARK (Alauda arvesis)

*Introduced

O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country

Sexes similar
. Brown overall with heavy streaking above and on breast. White belly and undertail. In flight white outer tail feathers are conspicuous. Wings are quite short and broad based. (7 inches) Calls: A loud "chirup". Song: A liquid and melodious song of trills and whistles given from aerial flight.

This European and Asian species was introduced from England in 1865 and New Zealand in 1870 and is found on all the Main Islands except Kaua'i. It is especially common on Maui and the Big Island. On Maui it can be commonly seen on the slopes of Haleakala and is often seen singing high above the grassy slopes. On the Big Island it is found on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, the Saddle Road area as well as South Point and Kilauea Crater in Volcanoes National Park. This species likes open grasslands and flat plains with vegetation. The species has apparently been recorded as a vagrant from Asia in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Kure and Midway).
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RED-VENTED BULBUL (Pycnonotus cafer)

*Introduced

O'ahu

Introduced Resident

Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Adults
are blackish above and dark gray below with a white wash on the belly. In flight and sometimes when perched the white rump is obvious, as is the dark tail band. Exhibits a short black crest and a red vent. Immatures are similar to adults but have brown edgings to the feathers. (8.5 inches) Calls: A repeated "kreu". Song: Scratchy notes and down-slurred whistles and warbles. At dawn gives a melodious warble.

The more common of the two introduced Asian Bulbuls found in Hawai'i, this species is also at present only found on O'ahu, although occasionally single birds have been recorded on other Islands, such as Kaua'i, Moloka'i and Hawai'i (most recently on the Kohala Coast of Hawai'i in September 2003). It can be found throughout O'ahu in many different habitats, including native forests and is easily seen nearly everywhere in Honolulu.
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RED-WHISKERED BULBUL (Pycnonotus jocosu)

*Introduced

O'ahu

Introduced Resident

Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Adults
are white below and brown above with a sharp black crest, red ear patch and thin black moustachial stripe. The tail is black with a white terminal band and the vent is orange. Immatures are like adults but lack the red ear patch. (7 inches) Calls: "chher" or "chi-chur-cheer" given loudly. Higher pitched and faster than red-vented Bulbul. Song: A warbling song at dawn.

Found only on O'ahu, this is a rather locally distributed introduced Asian species. It is mainly found in the Honolulu and surrounding area. They can easily be seen in Kapiolani Park, particularly in the Zoo. Lyon Arboretum and any of the Valleys behind Honolulu, such as Manoa and Makiki are other regular spots.Tantalus Mount is also a regular location. The species appears to also be spreading along the windward coast.
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JAPANESE BUSH-WARBLER (Cettia diphone)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Wetland; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest

Adults
are similar and are olive-brown above and off-white below. There is an obvious pale supercilium and the tail is long with a squarish end. The bill and legs are pale colored. Immatures are similar but are browner above and may exhibit narrow wings bars, caused by buffy tips to the feathers. (5.5 inches) Calls: A soft "chip". Song: A long sustained whistle followed by several quick notes, sometimes drawn into a series of winding down-notes. Song not usually heard between September and December, making birds hard to locate. The song is far-carrying and often appears nearer than the bird really is.

This unobtrusive introduced Warbler from Japan can be found in forested areas on all the Main Islands, after a rapid spread from O'ahu, where it was first introduced in 1929. It was first noted on the other islands in 1979 and 1980 and has spread throughout the available habitat on these islands and can now be found in many of the native forests, which may well pose a further threat to Hawai'i's endemic forest species. Although never easy to see there are several locations on Kaua'i where they will often sit in the open and sing or call. Wailua Reservoir and the nearby Keahua Arboretum, Huleia NWR near Lihue and Hanalei River Valley seem to be particularly good spots. Now the most common bird on Moloka'i in the remnant forests. Known as Uguisu in Japanese.
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NIHOA MILLERBIRD (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi)

Endemic

NW Chain

Endemic Resident

Coastal; Lowland Scrub

Sexes are similar
. A dark gray-brown bird above with buffy-white underparts. Bold supercilium and long dark tail. Thin dark bill and gray legs. (5 inches) Song: Metallic and bubbling. Unlikely to be confused on Nihoa as it is only one of two passerine species present. Sings from exposed branches.

Confined to the tiny Nihoa Island in the NW Chain, this endemic Old World Warbler is not numerous (probably about 200 - 300 remain), and as the Island is off-limits except to a few researchers, it is a species only a few people will ever see, but is included here for completeness. Another Millerbird was found on Laysan (A.f. familiaris) but became extinct between 1913 and 1923 due to habitat destruction by rabbits. Threats to the Millerbird include introduced plants and animals, and fire. All these threats are very serious as this is the only place in the world where these birds can be found.

The Nihoa Millerbird is an endemic bird found only on Nihoa. Because Nihoa is a mere 156 acres, its habitat is very limited.
These shy little birds spend their time near the ground in goosefoot (Chenopodium sanwicheum) and ilima (Sida Fallax), where they forage for insects. Their nests are constructed of grass stems and rootlets and concealed in small shrubs. Nesting may occur anytime between January and May, and an average of two eggs are laid.

The Nihoa Millerbird was listed as an endangered species in 1967 under the Federal Endangered Species Act. Nihoa is part of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge created in 1909, and access is restricted due to the island’s fragile ecosystem. It is also designated as a Research Natural Area where state and federal biologists work closely together to monitor and maintain Nihoa’s wildlife and environment. Biologists are considering the possible translocation of sufficient Millerbirds to create a second population on other Hawaiian islands such as Laysan, Kaho`olawe, or Eastern Island at Midway Atoll to reduce the possibility of extinction.

Link: Nihoa Millerbird Article
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WHITE-RUMPED SHAMA (Copsychus malabaricus)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Maui

Introduced Resident

Wetland;Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Male
is glossy black above with a black throat and upper breast and a chestnut belly and undertail. The tail is long (particularly in some older birds?) and is dark above and white below. The rump is white and often puffed up during singing or aggression. The female is gray above and gray below with a hint of brown and a shorter tail than the male, the rump is also white. Bare parts are black. Immatures are like females but paler and may have a mottled breast and pale wing bars. (9-11 inches) Calls: Clicking or "tack" call. Song: Beautiful melodious whistles with rich and clear quality with many different phrases and some mimicking of other species of birds. Considered by many to have the most beautiful song in Hawai'i. An expert mimic.

This introduced resident from Asia has until recently been found on Kaua'i and O'ahu only, but in recent years appears to have colonized Moloka'i and Maui too. On O'ahu it can be seen in the Ko'olau and Waianae Mountains, Lyon Arboretum and the Aiea Ridge Trail. On Kaua'i it can be seen virtually anywhere around the Island. Birds are seen by the wetlands at Hanalei NWR, at Kilauea Point by the sea cliffs, on the edge of the runway at Lihue Airfield, in scrub by Hanapepe Saltpond right up to Koke'e State Park in native Forest - such a widespread species should be hard to miss, but birds can be surprisingly elusive as they prefer to keep in amongst trees and bushes, but most of the sites listed for Kaua'i have individuals that are perhaps a little easier to observe. There have been a small number of records from Moloka'i in the Kalaupapa, Kualapu'u and Pala'au regions and the Eastern end of the Island over the last few years and it seems that a small population now exists on the island, it can be assumed that this will grow in the next few years. The species has also recently been reported from Maui (late 1990's and 2000), at the Keanae Arboretum and in fields and woodland along the lower end of Haleakala Crater Road (routes 377 and 378).
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'OMAO (Myadestes obscurus)

Endemic

Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes similar. Adults are dark gray-brown above and pale gray below. The tail is quite short. Immature is brownish gray with heavy scalloping of darker brown. Bare parts are dark. (7 inches) Calls: Likened to the sound of a police whistle. Song: A jerky series of slurred, flute-like notes.

The more common of the two endemic Solitaires that are known to still survive in Hawai'i can be found relatively easily on the Big Island, and appears to be becoming more common, a ray of sun in the gloom of Hawai'i's endemic avifaunal record. It can easily be seen at Thurston lava Tube in Volcanoes National Park, at Kipuka Puaualu and near Volcano House, mornings or evenings are probably best when the tourist crowds have subsided a little. They can also be easily observed in Hakalau Forest NWR and in Kipukas off the Saddle Road.
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PUAIOHI (Myadestes palmeri)

Endemic

Kaua'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes similar. Adults are dark brown above and grayish below with pink legs. The tail is short. The bill is slender and all dark. A pale eye ring can be noticed in good views, as well as a slight dark malar stripe. Immatures are similar to adult but the breast is heavily scalloped with darker brown. (7 inches) Calls: Harsh "sherr". Song: Slurred, whistled trill with upward inflection at the end. Click Here to hear a recording of the Puaiohi's song, recorded by David Kuhn in the Alaka'i Swamp, Kaua'i in 2002. © David Kuhn 2002. All rigths reserved. [You will need Realplayer or similar to hear the audio.]

This Kaua'i endemic is very scarce, but can be found with a little searching and some luck. Until recently it was considered very rare, but recent estimates have put the number of individuals at about 200. Birds may be seen along the Alakai Swamp Trail, where captive-bred birds were re-introduced in the late 1990's. The boardwalk towards the Pihea Ridge Trail and down the "staircase" to the Kilohana Overlook may produce a sighting. The further one can get along the Alakai Swamp Trail or Kawaikoi Stream Trail into the Alakai Swamp the better chance of seeing this elusive species. Birds have also been seen along some of the other trails leading off from near Koke'e Museum, but one must travel about eight to ten miles in to see them, which requires a 4-wheel drive and a lot of hiking. The boardwalk along the Alakai Swamp Trail is probably the best bet for all but the most intrepid!

The Puaiohi is a very secretive bird, and prefers fern and sedge covered stream banks in the `ohi`a forest in the eastern Alaka`i Swamp above 4,000 feet. Unlike the Kama`o with a sweet melodious song, the Puaiohi’s song is said to be a “squeaking of a metal wheel in need of lubrication.” This forest bird likes to eat the purple berries of the native `olapa plant. It will also eat spiders and caterpillars found in the rainforest.

The Puaiohi was considered a rare bird as early as the 1900s. From the period of 1968-73, only 177 of this forest bird were recorded. Scientists believe that between 200 to 300 Puaiohi inhabit the Alaka`i Swamp. Habitat destruction, avian disease, goat and cattle grazing, predation by cats and rats, and competition from alien plants pose serious threats to their survival.

The Forest Reserve Act of 1907 was an important step in protecting watersheds and forests for Hawai`i’s native birds. The Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve and the Koke`e State Park established by the State of Hawai`i are prime habitats for the endangered forest birds of Kaua`i. In 1999, 14 captively bred Puaiohi were released into the Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve by The Peregrine Fund. Within two months, most of these young birds had already found a mate, and several were building nests. This species became the first captively bred Hawaiian forest bird species to successfully hatch chicks in the wild when two chicks hatched in April 1999. The Puaiohi was listed as an endangered species on March 11, 1967.

Link: Puaiohi
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GREATER-NECKLACED LAUGHING THRUSH (Garrulux pectoralis)

*Introduced

Kaua'i

Introduced Resident

Upland Forest; Lowland Forest

Large size. Sexes similar. Rusty brown above and pale buff and white below. Necklace of black and brown across breast. tail is long with a pale tip. the head shows a complex pattern of black and white coloring. (13 inches) Song: A series of descending musical whistles.

This large Asian Laughing-Thrush is an introduced resident confined to Kaua'i and is generally very elusive and hard to see. Although groups of birds can often be noisy they can also be frustratingly silent, and as they are prone to wander, finding them can be difficult. Huleia NWR is probably the best location to see these birds, especially early morning, when birds can be seen along the road between the switch-back in the road (just before the refuge sign) and the stream at the end of the road. Other locations where birds have been seen regularly, though not necessarily frequently, are Hanalei NWR, Anini Beach approach road and Keahua Arboretum. A group of 6 birds was seen near the summit of the Nounou Mountain (Sleeping Giant) in 2000, and the habitat here looks as good as anywhere, and so this may also be a regular haunt of the species. Birds have also been seen in the past near the base of Koke'e Road, but are definitely not regular here.
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GREY-SIDED LAUGHING-THRUSH (Garrulux caerulatus)

*Introduced

O'ahu

Introduced Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes similar
. Dark brown above and white below with gray flanks. Long dark brown tail, chestnut undertail coverts. Small blue eye-patch and white area below eye on dark brown/black face. Pale legs. (11 inches) Calls: Rapid low chattering, a plaintive "kew-wee" and a short upslurred human-like whistle.

This extremely elusive Asian species is confined to a small area on O'ahu in the Koolau Mountains. It is not seen very often and hasn't been reliably sighted for over twenty years. There are at present no reliable locations to see this species, but it may well still be surviving in unexplored forest in this area, it was last seen along the Poamoho Trail.
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MELODIOUS LAUGHING-THRUSH (HWAMEI)
(Garrulux canorus)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Upland Forest; Lowland Forest

Sexes similar
. Rusty brown all over with a very prominent white eye-ring and spectacle line extending to ear coverts. Bill and legs are yellow. Often runs along the ground to escape danger, although is also well able to fly strongly on rounded wings. (9 inches) Calls: A dry rattle. Song: Loud and melodious and quite variable but composes of a series of paired phrases. Sometimes pairs duet.

Hwamei can be found on all the Main Islands except Lana'i and is particularly common on Kaua'i. Birds can be found in the underbrush and in forested areas but are usually very shy and elusive, often feeding on the ground amongst the leaf-litter. Some of the most easily observed birds can be found on Kaua'i, and the birds at Kilauea Point NWR are particularly easy to see, where they can often be seen hopping around bushes in the parking lot and near the visitor center. Originally an escaped cage bird (in 1900), originally from Asia, it is present all year.
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RED-BILLED LEIOTHRIX (Leiothrix lutea)

*Introduced

O'ahu; Moloka'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Upland Forest; Lowland Forest

Sexes alike
. Olive-green above with a yellow throat, whitish underparts and orange-yellow breast. Orangey markings on wing. Red bill and dark eye. (5.5 inches) Calls: A scolding chatter and a soft sad whistle. Song: Melodious and similar to Hwamei but lacks the paired phrases.

This attractive introduced Oriental species is found on all the Main Islands except Lana'i and Kaua'i. The population that was once present on Kaua'i has not been seen for several years and it is presumed extinct on that Island, although re-colonization may occur as the species continues to increase in numbers on the other Islands. On O'ahu it is quite local but can be found in the Valleys behind Honolulu, such as Manoa and Makiki Valleys. On Maui it is found commonly in Hosmer Grove and Waikomoi Preserve. Apparently birds at Kula Botanical Gardens are quite tame and may allow close approach. On the Big Island they can be found in Hakalau Forest NWR, in Volcanoes NP and Mauna Kea SP on the Saddle Road. The Pu'u O'o rainforest - Kipuka 21 area is also a great site for this species. Kipuka Puaulu in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park is probably the easiest place to see the species on the Big Island.
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JAPANESE WHITE-EYE (Zosterops japonica)

*Introduced

Ni'ihau; Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Coastal; Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Small size. Adults are olive-green above and off-white or white below. The throat is yellow. Very conspicuous white eye-ring. Females are often duller in coloration. Juveniles when very young lack the white eye-ring. (4 inches)
Calls: A prolonged "tseet". Song: Like House Finch but higher pitched. Also a complex high-pitched warbling twitter, sometimes mimicking other species of birds.

Probably the most numerous bird in Hawai'i, the Japanese White-eye can be found on all the Main islands in almost every habitat, from the coast to high elevation forests and in both wet and dry areas. A species that will not go unnoticed in Hawai'i!! Known as Mejiro in Japanese.
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NORTHERN MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus polyglottos)

*Introduced

Ni'ihau; Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Coastal; Wetland; Open Country

Sexes alike. Adults are gray-brown above and pale below. The tail is long and gray with white outer feathers. the wings exhibit white wing bars when closed and large white patches in flight. The face is plain gray and the bare parts are dark. Some birds show a pinky tinge to the plumage, whilst others are much browner. (10 inches) Calls: "Chuk". Song: melodious and often includes other species phrases and songs. An accomplished mimic.

This species is an introduced resident from North America on all the Main Islands and has been sighted in the NW Chain on Nihoa (where it probably breeds annually), Necker and Tern Islands. Mockingbirds prefer the dry lowland areas but can also be found in wetlands and higher elevations up to 9000 feet. On Kaua'i it is especially common on the South and West sides, where it is much dryer but is also regular round to Kilauea but then becomes much scarcer west of here. Lihue Airfield and the Mana Plain are two locations where they are easily seen perching on fences and wires. On O'ahu they can be seen along the North Shore and in most areas where there is suitable habitat, as well as less commonly on the windward side (eg. Lanikai). On Maui they can regularly be observed along the road to Haleakala, as well as in coastal areas, such as Kealia Pond. They inhabit the same types of areas on the Big Island, for example the Saddle Road area.
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COMMON MYNA (Acridotheres tristis)

*Introduced

NW Chain; Ni'ihau; Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Coastal; Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Adults
are brown all over except for the head which is blackish and a small yellow eye-patch. The bill and legs are also yellow. The tail is short and rounded and has white tips. In flight it shows conspicuous white wing patches. seem to have a fondness for plastic bags, which they frequently chase! (9 inches) Calls: Harsh notes. Song: usually squeaks and mimics other birds.

The Common Mynah is one of the most conspicuous species in Hawai'i and is an introduced resident from India. It is found on all the Main Islands and currently also on Midway, although there is a plan to eradicate them from the island. Most commonly observed in urban areas, parks, gardens, wetlands and agricultural fields. Some birds can be seen at higher elevations, eg. Koke'e on Kaua'i. Feeding flocks of many hundreds can often be seen and large roosts may occur near favorite foraging areas. Occasionally other Myna species are seen, mainly on O'ahu but these are usually just single escaped pets, although a small group of Hill Myna survived for a while at Lyon Arboretum, O'ahu but no birds are present there now.
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YELLOW-FACED GRASSQUIT (Tiaris olivacea)

*Introduced

O'ahu

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Upland Forest Scrub

Male
has brown-olive upperparts, black breast and upper belly, yellow face and bright yellow supercilium and black crown and cheeks. Undertail coverts are pale yellow. Belly is gray. Females are similar to males but have olive heads, indistinct supercilium and mottled black breast and paler yellow throat. Short tailed. (4 inches) Calls: A thin "tzip". Song: A thin insect-like buzzy trill. Very quiet and easy to overlook.

Confined to O'ahu, this Central American introduced species tends to wander quite widely but can often be found along the Manana Trail in the Ko'olau Mountains and on the ridges behind Pearl City. The species has a particular fondness for burnt grass areas, but is also frequently seen in residential gardens in the mountains. The birds can be extremely elusive and can take a long time to find, and a good site one week may not be favored the next.
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SAFFRON FINCH (Sicalis flaveola)

*Introduced

O'ahu; Maui?; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Urban

Sexes alike
, but males brighter than females. Bright yellow above and below with small amounts of orange on forehead and crown. Some show narrow streaking of orange on the breast and flanks. Immatures are off-white - gray and streaked yellowish above. (7 inches)
Calls: A metallic "tick". Song: A mix of slurred whistles and chips.

The bright yellow male birds and slightly duller females are highly distinctive and easily identified and are common in the Kona and Kohala areas of the Big Island, especially along the coast. Easily seen on golf courses, parks and gardens as well as in scrubby areas. From 2000 onwards Saffron Finches were observed in grassy areasi Hilo, eg. next to the beach at Hilo Bay, so the species is apparently spreading on the Big Island and it seems likely that it may be expected anywhere within the next few years. On O'ahu the species is quite localized in the Pearl City and Sand Island areas. There was once a small population around Kapiolani Park in Waikiki with scattered reports from Blaisdell Park in Aiea. These populations seem to have dwindled somewhat and may be extirpated, but a population around Salt Lake was doing well in1991. Since then Saffron Finches seem to have expanded their range and population in South Central O'ahu and are now being reported from East Honolulu to Mililani to Kapolei and even as far as Kane'ohe. The species may have recently colonized Maui with reports from several areas, including on golf courses. A South American species.
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RED-CRESTED CARDINAL (Paroaria coronata)

*Introduced

Ni'ihau; Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui

Introduced Resident

Coastal; Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Sexes alike
. Adults: Pale gray above and white below. Darker tail. Red face, throat and erect crest. Immatures lack crest and have less bright red areas as well as duller backs. (7.5 inches) Calls: A soft squeaky note. Song: A series of clear hesitant whistles that alternate up and down.

Found on all the Main islands, except the Big Island and is extremely numerous on O'ahu and Kaua'i. Usually seen in pairs or small groups these birds can be found in many different habitats from wetlands to forests and urban streets to beaches. Introduced from South America in the 1920's it is a widespread bird and is easily seen by most visitors.
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YELLOW-BILLED CARDINAL (Paroaria capitata)

*Introduced

Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Lowland Forest; Urban

Adults
: Dark gray or black above and white below. Red head and throat but no crest. Yellow bill. Pink legs. Immatures are brown above and have orangey head and throat. (7 inches)
Calls: A single squeaky note. Song: Like Red-crested cardinal but softer.

This species is similar looking to the Red-crested Cardinal, but is confined to the Kona Coast of the Big Island where it can be found in residential areas as well as coastal scrub, such as at Aimakapa Pond. Recent observations of the species have also been made from along the Saddle Road, a considerable range expansion for a species which has been confined to the Kona coast for 20 or so years. Not a difficult species to find and observe. Originally introduced from South America.
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NORTHERN CARDINAL (Cardinalis cardinalis)

*Introduced

Ni'ihau; Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Male
is red with black facial area and small crest. Long tail and short conical red bill. Females and immatures are paler colored without black face but otherwise similar. (9 inches) Calls: A clear "chip". Song: Clear whistles and fluty notes, often with a smooth-staccato style.

The familiar Cardinal of North America can be found on all the Main Islands in suitable habitat, which includes lowland and exotic forests, as well as coastal scrub, parks and gardens and native forest.
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WESTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella neglecta)

*Introduced

Kaua'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country

Sexes alike
. Brown and gray upperparts streaked with black and white. Bright yellow underparts with prominent black "V" on upper breast. throat yellow. Flanks and undertail coverts white with black streaks. Tail shows conspicuous white outer feathers in flight or when flicked in nervousness. (8-10 inches) Calls: Loud "chuk". Song: A beautiful melodic flute-like song, reminiscent of the 'O'o.

This beautiful North American bird is confined in the Hawaiian Islands to Kaua'i where it can be commonly seen in grasslands, wetlands, dry scrub and agricultural fields from Hanalei to Kekaha. Often seen standing on fence posts or walking through roadside verges, Lihue Airfield, Hanalei NWR, Kilauea and Anahola are good spots to observe this species. Introduced from the Western United States in 1931.
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HOUSE FINCH (Carpodacus mexicanus)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Maui; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Male
is red on the throat and head and upper breast with gray-brown back and pale gray underparts. Both the upperparts and underparts have dark streaking. Red rump. Many males show yellow replacing the red areas. Females and juveniles are like the male but lack the yellow or red coloring, although some occasionally have a greenish tinge to the rump area. (5.5 inches) Calls: A clear "cheep". Song: A sweet warble with distinctive end, described as "burr".

This North American species is commonly found on all the Main Islands in many habitats from parks and gardens to native forest and seashores and is easily observed.
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YELLOW-FRONTED CANARY (Serinus mozambicus)

*Introduced

O'ahu; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Urban

Sexes similar
. Bright yellow below and olive above with two prominent yellow wing bars. Male has distinct face pattern with dark crown, eye-stripe, ear and malar stripe and bright yellow elsewhere. Female and immature birds have less well-marked faces. (4.5 inches) Calls: A metallic "chip-chip". Flight call similar to that of House Finch. Song: Fluid and canary-like.

This bright attractive African species can be seen on O'ahu and the Big Island, and has been reported, though not confirmed, from Kauai. The easiest location on O'ahu to see this species is Kapiolani Park, where birds are easily seen in the trees and around the edge of the Zoo. On the Big Island it is common in the North Kona/South Kohala district, especially along the edges of wooded areas with open areas
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COMMON CANARY (Serinus canaria)

*Introduced

NW Chain

Introduced Resident

Coastal; Lowland Forest

Adults
are pale yellow with pink bill and legs. Natural birds are streaked with dark. (6 inches) Calls: Whistles and trills and fluid fluty notes.

This species can be seen on Midway in the NW Chain, where a sizeable introduced population exists. Domestic varieties are often seen on the Main Islands as escapes. The original Canary was endemic to the Canary Islands in Europe.
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NIHOA FINCH (Telespiza ultima)

Endemic

NW Chain

Endemic Resident

Coastal

Male is brightly colored yellow on the head, neck and back with a gray band on the upper back. The belly is white. Females are brownish and streaked with black above. The breast is yellow and heavily streaked black. (6 inches) Calls: Various whistled notes. Song: Loud and melodious with trills, whistles and warbles. Unlikely to be confused on Nihoa.

The Nihoa Finch lives only on the island of Nihoa in the Northwest chain, 250 miles northwest of O`ahu. It prefers open but vegetated habitat throughout the island. Nihoa Finches build their nests in small holes in rock outcrops 100 to 800 feet above sea level. Egg laying begins in February and may extend to early July, with an average clutch of three eggs. This endemic species feeds on seeds, flowers and seabird eggs. No access to this island is permitted, except in extremely rare cases and so is unlikely to be seen by the average birder, but is included for completeness. The Nihoa Finch was listed as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on March 11, 1967.

Nihoa was once inhabited by early Polynesians, but few people since then have even dared to take on the rough seas and sheer cliffs of the remote island. Historical records on the Nihoa Finch are very scant, but in 1985, their population was estimated to be 3,200 birds. Population estimates from the last 30 years range between 900 and 6,600 birds. Forty-two finches were transplanted to French Frigate Shoals in 1967 in an effort to ensure the survival of a wild population, but the project was not successful.

Link: Nihoa Finch

Link: Nihoa Finch Article

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LAYSAN FINCH (Telespiza cantans)

Endemic

NW Chain

Endemic Resident

Coastal

Male
has a bright yellow head, throat and neck and a green-yellow back and a grayish rump. The female is like the male but has streaks on the head and neck and brownish spots on the back. Immatures are heavily streaked with variable amounts of yellow. (6 inches) Calls: A whistled "pee-o-wheet". Song: A complicated melodious song. Unlikely to be confused on Laysan.

Another NW Chain endemic, this species is restricted to Laysan Island where it is relatively common. Its habits and foods are similar to the Nihoa Finch. Access is also severely restricted to this island.

Link: Laysan Finch Article
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PALILA (Loxoided bailleui)

Endemic

Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

A finch-billed Honeycreeper that exhibits a yellow head and breast, gray back and pale gray-white underparts in the male. The wings and tail are darker slightly than the back. In adults the bill is dark and orange in fledglings. Females are slightly less yellow on the breast and the nape. Immatures are similar to females but have two pale wingbars. (6 inches). Calls: A two or three syllable up-slurred whistle, which can be surprisingly hard to locate. Song: Melodious and quiet and lengthy. Also a loud advertisement song given in morning and evening.

The Hawaiian name PALILA probably refers to the gray color of the upperparts.

This
Big Island endemic is found in mamane-naio forest on the slopes of Mauna Kea, from 6000 to 8000 feet, where it feeds on green seed pods of mamane trees. Its favorite food consists of green mamane seed pods. This active bird also eats insects, naio berries, and mamane flowers, buds, and young leaves. The Palila breeds from February to September and usually lays two eggs. Pu'u La'au is probably the best site to see this species, although they can be very elusive and quiet. Although fairly numerous the range of this species is small, but birds wander widely in this area. In late 2003 a team of federal, state and private agencies released five Palila, reared in captivity, on the north side of Mauna Kea, facing Waimea, in hopes of establishing a new colony of the endangered native birds there. It marked the first release of the species reared at a San Diego Zoo facility on Mauna Loa near Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Five more of the captively reared birds were released later in the month.

Historically, the Palila is known only from the island of Hawai`i, occurring in the native mamane-naio forest on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea, the northwest slopes of Mauna Loa, and the eastern slopes of Hualalei. In prehistoric times, Palila also occurred at low elevation sites on O`ahu. Scientists as early as 1944 believed the bird was near extinction. In 1975, there were an estimated 1,614 Palila. Annual surveys from 1880-1995 have documented an estimated 3,000 individuals remaining, 92% of which occur on the south slope of Mauna Kea. The Palila is threatened by invasive alien plants that compete with native species; feral animals such as cats, rats, and mongooses; livestock grazing that destroys vegetation; and fire.

The Palila was listed as an endangered species on March 11, 1967. This listing triggered a considerable amount of research on the bird and its habitat. The original U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery plan published in 1977 was updated in 1986. Critical habitat on Mauna Kea located on the Island of Hawai`i (Big Island) was designated by the Federal government in 1977. A 1978 Federal court ruling required that all feral sheep and goats be removed from Palila critical habitat. Scientists continue their quest to save this rare forest bird by monitoring its life cycle, fencing critical habitat to keep out feral animals, and promoting mamane tree revegetation efforts to establish new Palila populations in suitable habitat elsewhere on the Big Island. Key habitat in the Saddle Road Palila Mitigation Plan are include three areas that have been set aside and managed for Palila. Some 1500 acres at Pu'u La'au, basically the area west of the existing core habitat within the Kaohe Lease Game Management Area. 3000 acres on the south side of the PTA which encompasses habitat formerly occupied by Palila, and last but largest, close to 5,000 acres of land in the Pu'u Mali area. And yes the habitat within the Pu'u Mali sector will enhance and already existing Mauka/Makai Mammane/Akoko Forest. For reference the unoccupied habitat that will be modified by the construction of the Saddle Road amounts to a little over 120 acres. All areas have been or will be fenced, ungulates removed where necessary and numerous habitat monitoring and restoration efforts mounted. The approximate cost of these efforts are in the 15 Million dollar range. All monies necessary to implement the mitigation efforts were secured prior to the onset of construction.

Link: Palila

Link: Palila Habitat Restoration Article
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MAUI PARROTBILL (Pseudonestor xanthophrys)

Endemic

Maui

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Males
are olive-green above and the underparts are yellow. The flanks are olive. Prominent yellow supercilium. Short tailed. The bill is parrot-like with a large lower mandible and a narrower curved upper mandible. Females and immatures are duller and have smaller bills. (5 inches) Calls: A short "chip", similar to Maui Creeper but given every three to five seconds. Song: A series of whistled, descending "cheer" notes, slower and richer than 'Akepa. Also a short song consisting of a whistled "chur-wee".

Found only on Maui, where it is presently restricted to high elevation `ohi`a forests of East Maui, although formerly it was also common in koa forest and dryland forest at low elevations on Maui. Fossil records show that they once also lived on Moloka`i. The best site to try and see this species is in the Waikomoi Preserve, which has regular walks through that area, led by the Nature Conservancy/Haleakala staff. Even if one manages to spend some time in this area, a sighting is by no means guaranteed. Birds have occasionally been seen in the past at Hosmer Grove, but this is extremely unusual. They have been seen in rainforests from 4,300 to 6,800 feet, usually in sub-canopy trees and understory plants. Although its range extends over eight miles, it is centered in an area of less than 5,000 acres. The Parrotbill feeds on insect larvae by splitting dry branches with its powerful bill. Its breeding biology is not known at this time. The Parrotbill has three different calls: a loud rising whistle, “kee-wit”, a “chick”, and a descending broken note, “tchew.”

Historically, the Maui Parrotbill has been rare, and today, only 500 of them survive. Early island settlers cleared much of the habitat of the Parrotbill and many other native birds for farming, animal grazing, and timber. The Europeans settlers brought pigs and disease-transmitting mosquitoes to Maui, further hindering the Parrotbill’s survival. The low-lying habitat they depend on is easily uprooted and destroyed by feral pigs. Private land owners like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and government agencies such as the State of Hawai`i's Department of Land and Natural Resources and the National Park Service (NPS) are committed to providing protected habitat for native species on Maui. Maui Parrotbill habitat today is found in the Hanawi Natural Area Reserve, Haleakala National Park, and Waikamoi Preserve.

The Maui Parrotbill was listed as an endangered species in 1967 under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The Maui-Moloka`i Forest Birds Recovery Plan was published in 1984, recommending active land management and fencing to keep feral animals out of the dwindling forest bird habitat.

Link: Maui Parrotbill
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O'AHU 'AMAKIHI (Hemignathus flavus)

Endemic

O'ahu

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Yellow-green all over but slightly darker above. Males are brighter than females or immatures. The bill is pale gray and slightly down-curved. Legs are gray and the eye is black. In females and immatures there are two pale wingbars, lacking in other 'Amakihi. (4.5 inches) Calls: A buzzy "tseet" or mewing note. Juveniles have buzzy call. Song: A variable flat trill, not descending or broken. 'Amakihi on each island have distinct dialects which although different from one another are readily identifiable as 'Amakihi.

The Hawaiian name 'AMAKIHI is derived from kihi or kihikihi which means "curved".

Restricted to
O'ahu this species can usually be seen easily in native forest, even within site of Honolulu, along the Tantalus Drive and Roundtop Drive. Also seen at Lyon Arboretum and Pu'u Ohia Trail nearby. Other reliable sites are the Aiea Ridge Trail and nearby Keaiwa Heiau State Park as well as Kuli'ou'ou Valley. Any area of native forest at the right elevation would be a good place to look for this fairly common endemic. Reference: Cheryl L. Tarr & Robert C. Fleischer.1993. Mitochondrial-DNA variation and evolutionary relationships in the Amakihi complex. The Auk 110, 4 (1993): 825-831.
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HAWAI'I 'AMAKIHI (Hemignathus virens)

Endemic

Hawai'i; Moloka'i; Maui

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

This is the brightest of the 'Amakihi but otherwise similar to the O'ahu 'Amakihi. Adults often shows larger black lores, which sometimes encompasses the bill. Immatures may lack the black lores are drab gray and may occasionally show faint single wing bars. Birds on Maui (H. v. wilsoni) may also show faint wingbars. (4.5 inches) Calls: A buzzy "tseet" or mewing note. Juveniles have buzzy call. Song: A variable flat trill, not descending or broken. 'Amakihi on each island have distinct dialects which although different from one another are readily identifiable as 'Amakihi.

The Hawaiian name 'AMAKIHI is derived from kihi or kihikihi which means "curved".

Abundant in native forest on the
Big Island and Maui and rare on Moloka'i, the species can easily be seen in many areas on Hawai'i such as Volcanoes National Park, Pu'u La'au off the Saddle Road, Hakalau Forest NWR and the Kona Forest area, such as the Kaloko subdivision and near the South end of the Island at Manuka State Park. Kipukas along the Saddle Road also have this species in very good numbers (aside from Pu'u La'au). On Maui, Amakihi are common in Hosmer Grove, Waikomoi Preserve and the East Maui Wilderness. Birds can easily be seen at Hosmer Grove right in the Parking Lot and are often to be seen feeding in non-native vegetation here. On Moloka'i the species might be seen in the forests of the Eastern portion of the island.
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KAUA'I 'AMAKIHI (Hemignathus kauiensis)

Endemic

Kaua'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

The longest billed 'Amakihi in adults. Males are dull olive above and green-yellow below. Otherwise similar to other Island 'Amakihi. (4.5 inches) Calls: A buzzy "tseet" or mewing note. Juveniles have buzzy call. Song: A variable flat trill, not descending or broken. 'Amakihi on each island have distinct dialects which although different from one another are readily identifiable as 'Amakihi.

The Hawaiian name 'AMAKIHI is derived from kihi or kihikihi which means "curved".

This
Kaua'i endemic has a slightly longer and more decurved bill than the other Amakihis. It can easily be seen in Koke'e State Park and Waimea Canyon State Park and along any of the trails in the area, especially along the Pihea Ridge Trail, Alakai Swamp Trail and Waikomoi Stream Trail. Birds are usually easily seen at the Kalalau Overlook, in trees surrounding the toilet block. At lower elevations birds have been seen in the Alexander Reservoir/Wahiawa Bog/Kahili Mount area, but it is far easier to observe them at Koke'e.
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'ANIANIAU (Hemignathus parvus)

Endemic

Kaua'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Smallest of the Drepandids. Male is yellow-green above and bright yellow below. The vent is white. Females and immatures are slightly smaller and duller. Pale lores in both sexes. Small pale bill and pale legs. (4 inches) Calls: A whistled "tew-wer-wheet" slurred upward. Also a two-note "sweet", similar to the 'Akeke'e and a whistled "cheep" similar to 'Akikiki. Song: Sweet, clear series of warbles almost trilled.

The Hawaiian name 'ANIANIAU probably translates as "eating in small bites". Nianiau also means "straight", referring to the bill.

Another
Kaua'i endemic this small bright species can be seen easily in Koke'e State Park from the Pihea Ridge Trail, Alakai Swamp Trail and along any of the Trails leading from the Museum Eastwards and trails into the Alakai Swamp. Birds are frequently seen along the road by the Kalalau Overlook.
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'AKIAPOLA'AU (Hemignathus munroi)

Endemic

Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Males
are olive-green above and yellow below with a yellow head. Females are smaller and duller than males. The upper mandible is long, thin and curved whilst the lower mandible is half the length and straight - an amazing bill! The lores are black in males and gray in females. The bill and legs are black at all ages and for both sexes. Immatures are pale gray above and pale below and have a smaller bill. (5.5 inches)
Calls: A descending "cheew" repeated regularly. Song: A loud melodious warbling with a rising clear whistle or trill at the end "pit-er-ieu".

This Big Island endemic is one of the jewels in Hawaiian birding. This species is not numerous but can be seen with patience (and sometimes luck). The `Akia pola`au only lives in high elevation `ohi`a-koa forests of the Big Island. Like other honeycreepers, this forest bird "creeps" along branches and uses its unique bill to pick out insect larvae. When searching for food, it makes a tapping noise that can be mistaken for a woodpecker. These birds travel in family groups and like to fly with other flocks of forest birds, however this endangered bird only lays one egg during nesting season. They prefer montane Koa-Ohia forest and much of this habitat is off-limits to most people. The `Akia pola`au was fairly abundant and widely distributed on the Big Island until the 1970s. They once inhabited forests from central Kona to Hilo. Dwindling forests and competition from alien plants and animals have reduced the population to only 1,500 birds. The largest `Akia pola`au population (about 900 birds) now lives in Hamakua; other smaller populations are at Mauna Kea, Ka`u, and Kona forests. This bird appears to favor koa forest at all locations. Scientists believe that the fragmentation and separation of the once connected Hamakua, Mauna Kea, Kau, and Kona forests might have contributed to the decline in numbers. It is not known if different populations move from one area to another. Scientists believe that linking the remaining `Akia pola`au populations would improve their survival into the future. Aggressive reforestation and fencing to keep goats and cattle out would give the `Akia pola`au and other forest birds a fighting chance.

Hakalau Forest NWR is probably the most reliable location but can also be found fairly regularly in Kipukas along the Powerline Road (Saddle Road), especially at Kipuka 21. Birds are also seen in mamane-naio forest at Pu'u La'au, but are irregular in their occurrence at this site.

The `Akia pola`au was listed as an endangered species in 1967 under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The
Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), the first such refuge established solely for the Hawaiian forest birds, provides the `Akia pola`au and many other threatened and endangered birds with a protected environment to live in. This species also is found in the recently created Kona Forest Unit of Hakalau Forest NWR.

Link: Akiapolaau
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'AKI'KIKI (KAUA'I CREEPER) (Oreomystis bairdi)

Endemic

Kaua'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes similar
. Adults: Gray-brown above and creamy colored below. Dark mask present through the eye. The bill is thin, straight and pale pinky or pale horn colored. The legs are also pink. Immatures are similar to adults but have a white face. (5 inches) Calls: Distinctive whistled "wit" or "seet". Song: A short descending soft trill.

Confined to Kaua'i, this species can be very elusive and secretive as it has a very quiet call and spends most of its time quietly feeding up and down the trunks of trees. It was once easily found in Kok'ee Sate Park along most of the trails, but is now much more scarce and requires a bit more effort to see. The Alakai Swamp Trail and Pihea Ridge Trail are probably the best easily reachable locations, especially where they cross each other or by the stream. Birds are also seen regularly along the Kawaikoi Stream Trail and on the trails out to the Alakai Swamp, such as Mohihi Trail. The further into the Alakai Swamp one can get the better the chance of seeing this species. A single visiting observer reported seeing an individual at the Pu'u O Kila parking lot in October 2002, although this is an unlikely site for the species with possibly just one prior record some twenty years previously.
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HAWAI'I CREEPER (Oreomystis mana)

Endemic

Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Adults:
Olive -green or gray above and paler below with a white throat and dark mask through the eye. Bill is smaller and slighter than 'Amakihi and is horn-colored. Immatures have white lores and supercilium, and are very similar to Hawai'i 'Amakihi. (5 inches) Calls: A thin "sweet". Fledglings utter "wit-wit-wit" and a similar call given by incubating females. Song: A rapid descending trill, faster than 'Akepa or Hawai'i 'Amakihi.

This Big Island species is found most easily at Hakalau Forest NWR, but can also be seen, though less easily at Kipukas along the Saddle Road and along Puu Oo Trail and Powerline Road, though apparently not at Pu'u La'au. It can be a difficult species to see as it is not brightly plumaged and as the name suggests creeps around rather unobtrusively.

The Hawai`i Creeper (or Hawai`i `Alauahio) belongs to the “creeper” family, which gets its name because of its creeping movement from branch to branch. Other endangered creepers include the Crested Honeycreeper, the Moloka`i Creeper, and the O`ahu Creeper. These four forest birds are entirely dependent upon native Hawaiian forest ecosystems for food, shelter and nesting sites. The Hawai`i Creeper is an active rainforest bird that lives in koa-`ohi`a forests above 2,200 feet in elevation. It feeds primarily on insects gleaned from branches and tree trunks, but is sometimes seen feeding on nectar. The Hawai`i Creeper travels in family groups and sometimes flocks with other native birds such as the `Akepa and the `Akiapola`au. It breeds from January to May. The Hawai`i Creeper used to be found in `ohi`a and `ohi`a-koa forests throughout the island but today is confined mostly to the upper elevation native forests on the windward coast. There are four distinct populations of this forest bird totaling about 12,500 birds.

The biggest threats to the continuing survival of Hawaiian forest birds are avian disease, predation by introduced mammals, and the destruction and severe disruption of their habitat as a result of logging, grazing, conversion of forest to agricultural uses, and invasion by introduced plants. Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge was established with the express intent to provide protected habitat for Hawai`i’s native forest birds.
The Hawai`i Creeper was listed as an endangered species in September 1975 under the Federal Endangered Species Act.

Link: Hawaii Creeper
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O'AHU 'ALAUAHIO (O'AHU CREEPER) (Paroreomyza maculata)

Endemic (Possibly Extinct)

O'ahu

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Male
is green-yellow above and yellow below with a short tail, yellow supercilium and forehead and thin black lores. The female is drab green above, pale below with a white throat, supercilium and forehead as well as two bold wingbars. In both sexes the bill is straight and pale as are the legs. Immatures and females are extremely similar to O'ahu 'Amakihi. (4.5 inches) Calls: A thin "chip". Song: Not recorded.

This O'ahu endemic is included more for completeness, rather than the fact that it is likely to be seen. It was last observed along the Poamoho Trail on the Ko'olau Ridge. The North Halawa Valley and Aiea ridge Trail would probably be the best places to search, but it has not been seen since 1985 and the chances of a sighting of this possibly extinct bird are less than miniscule!

Link: Oahu Creeper
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MAUI 'ALAUAHIO (MAUI CREEPER) (Paroreomyza montana)

Endemic

Maui

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Male
is yellow-green above and bright yellow below with yellow forehead and face. Lores are also yellow. Female is drabber with a yellow wash on the upper breast and throat. Immatures are drab above and below with a faint wing bar. Bill in all birds is straight and pale. Legs are pale too. (4.5 inches) Calls: A distinctive "chip", given at one to three second intervals. Song: A thin warble, different to all other trills of native Maui birds.

This Maui endemic can easily be seen in Haleakala NP, especially around Hosmer Grove and the Waikomoi Preserve, as well as the East Maui Wilderness. At Hosmer Grove birds are often seen feeding near, or even on the ground, and in non-native species. They can also be seen at the Waikomoi Flume and Polipoli Springs. Numerous good-sized flocks can be encountered in Waikomoi, where they can be easily located by their loud calls. One of the easiest endemic birds to observe.

Link: Maui Forest Bird Group
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'AKEPA (Loxops coocineus)

Endemic

Maui; Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Hawai'i male is red-orange with a pale conical bill and long notched tail. Females are greenish above and yellow below. Maui males are dull bronze-yellow with a gray bill and the female is like the Hawai'i 'Akepa. (5 inches) Calls: A quiet "ke-wit". Song: A descending and warbling trill.

The Hawaiian name, 'AKEPA means "active". The Hawai`i `Akepa is also known as `Akakane, and the Maui `Akepa as `Akepeu`ie.

One of the smallest honeycreepers, the `Akepa can be found in `ohi`a and koa-`ohi`a forests above 3,000 feet. They like to move in small flocks and nest in tree cavities.Their diet consists primarily of insects and spiders. They use their odd-shaped bills to pry open `ohi`a buds, small seed pods, and galls in search of food. They have been known to drink nectar from `ohi`a and other flowers. The `Akepa was once found on O`ahu, Maui and the Big Island but is now confined to the
Big Island and Maui, although the population on Maui is close to extinction, if not already so. The `Akepa was common in the 1800s on Maui but the largest population today remains on the Big Island (estimated at 14,000). The smallest population today is on Maui with an estimated number of less than 100. The place to see 'Akepa is Hakalau Forest NWR (Hawai'i), where the species is very numerous and easy to see. Flocks of brightly colored males can be seen with females in many of the trees and it is certainly hard to miss them at this site. Birds are also occasionally seen in Kipukas along the Saddle Road and other forested areas near Hakalau, but require more luck and patient searching.

O`ahu `Akepa were documented to be rare even in the 1800s and are extinct today, with the last possible sighting in 1976. Aggressive alien plants and animals and loss of habitat are threats to the survival of the `Akepa. Protecting the `Akepa and other native birds of Hawai`i requires that suitable habitat for them to live and breed in be protected. The Fish and Wildlife Service established the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge primarily for the welfare of Hawai`i's forest birds. Eliminating feral animals and revegetating these lands with native plants are ways to help Hawai`i's native birds. The Maui and Hawai`i `Akepa were listed as an endangered species on October 13, 1970.

Link: Akepa
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'AKEKE'E (Loxops caeruleirostris)

Endemic

Kaua'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes alike
. The upperparts are olive-green and the underparts are yellow. The crown and rump are bright yellow and the lores and feathers around the bill are prominently black. The bill is grayish and may show a black tip. (5 inches) Calls: An upslurred "sweet". Song: A long, descending trill often changing in pitch two or three times.

This Kaua'i endemic (also known as the Kaua'i 'Akepa) can be seen fairly easily in the Kokee region, especially along the Kawaikoi and Mohihi Trails. Birds are usually present along the Pihea Ridge Trail and the Alakai Swamp Trail, but can be extremely elusive at times. Birds also seem to range very widely, on some days birds may be present by the toilet block at the Kalalau Lookout, whilst at other times birds will only be seen far into the Alakai Wilderness. This species although regular may take several visits for a sighting. As with most of the endemics on Kaua'i, the further into the Alakai Wilderness one can get, the better the chances.
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I'IWI (Vestiaria coccinea)

Endemic

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Maui; Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Adults
are bright vermilion red with black wings and a white inner secondary patch. The bill is salmon pink and curved. The legs are pink also. At close range a yellow eye-ring is discernible. Immatures are splotchy yellow and green which gradually turns vermilion. Fledglings have a light brown bill which then changes to yellow in immatures and then pink in adulthood. (5.5-5.75 inches) The bird shown to the right is a sub-adult. Calls: Loud and squeaky, likened to a rusty hinge. Also a clear, distinct whistle and a lou musical squeak. Song: Short and variable sounds forced but is quite musical. Often mimics other birds.

The Hawaiians had different names for adult and juvenile birds: Adult was known as I'iwi polena and juveniles known as I'iwi popolo.

This Hawaiian Endemic is found on Kaua'i, O'ahu, Maui and Hawai'i. It can easily be seen on Kaua'i, Maui and the Big Island. The species is almost extinct on O'ahu. On Kau'ai it is easily seen in Koke'e State Park and the Alakai Wilderness.

It can be observed along the
Pihea Ridge Trail, Alakai Swamp Trail, Kalalau Overlook, Kawaikoi Stream and Mohihi Trails. On Maui the species is easily seen at Hosmer Grove and at the Waikomoi Preserve as well as the East Maui Wilderness. On the Big Island it is extremely numerous at Hakalau Forest NWR (I've never seen so many in one place!) and can also be seen in Kipukas along the Saddle Road. In Volcanoes National Park the species has become very scarce but was once quite easily seen at the upper end of Mauna Loa road. Recently the only place in the "main" area of the park where they can still be seen regularly is on the Kilauea Iki trail between Nahuku Lava Tube and the Kilauea Iki overlook. A single 'I'iwi was observed in Kipuka Puaulu in late 2002, where the species had not been recorded by regular visitors since 1974!
On
O'ahu the species is almost extinct, but might be seen along the upper reaches of the Manana Trail. Some still survive in closed areas in the Waianae Mountain range. Also seen occasionally at the top of the Aiea Ridge Trail.
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'AKOHEKOHE (Palmaria dolei)

Endemic

Maui

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Quite large sized. Adults are dark black with gray and white flecks and streaks. It has a short golden or gray fluffy crest. Feathers on the underparts are tipped with white or gray whereas those on the upperparts and wings are tipped with orange. The nape is bright orangey-red. The tail is tipped with white. Immatures are brownish-black and lack orange feather tips or the crest. Bill and legs are black. (7 inches) Calls: Most notable is a loud whistled "whee-o, whee-o", also a descending repeated "tchew". Song: A low chuckling "tjook tjook chouroup" or "hur-hur-hur-gluk-gluk-gluk".

Also known as the Crested Honeycreeper, this species is now confined to Maui, although it once inhabited Moloka'i as well. Crested Honeycreepers were abundant on Maui and Moloka`i at the turn of the century, and were last seen on Moloka`i in 1907. During a 1980 forest bird survey on Maui, 415 observations were recorded in an area of about 11,000 acres, ranging from 4,200 feet to 7,100 feet elevation. The total population is estimated at 3,800 birds, and appears to be broken into two major sub-populations separated by the Koolau Gap. This bizarrely plumaged is one of the highlights of Hawai'i birding. The boisterous Crested Honeycreeper or `Akohekohe is found in rainforests that are at least 4,200 feet in elevation. It will aggressively chase off native rivals such as the `Apapane and I`iwi when competing for food. It usually feeds on `ohi`a flower nectar but will take nectar from other native plants, and will eat insects and fruits. Historically, 12 species of forest birds were found on Maui. One of these became extinct in this century and five of them are now endangered, with the Crested Honeycreeper being one of them. The Hawaiian landscape today is a drastically modified version of the pristine conditions encountered by the first Polynesians some 1,400 years ago. Habitat degradation and destruction, human exploitation, predation, avian diseases, and competition with introduced species are all factors in the decline of the Crested Honeycreeper and many other native forest birds.

It is most numerous in the East Maui Wilderness, but the
Waikomoi Preserve is the place to look for it for the average birder. Organized walks by the Nature Conservancy sometimes see this species and provide the best chance of finding one, especially if the walk includes the "boardwalk". Birds have also been seen at Hosmer Grove and the Waikomoi Flume, but these are by no means a regular occurrence. Staff at Haleakala NP will be able to provide information on sightings and trips schedules (contact details in the useful addresses section). Privately organized trips by tour groups or commercial tours regularly visit the best area for 'Akohekohe and it may be well worth contacting one of these groups as sometimes they allow birders to go along, and often are able to spend more time or visit the more likely spots, than might be possible otherwise.

The Crested Honeycreeper was listed as an endangered species in March 1967 under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The first draft of the Maui-Moloka`i Forest Bird Recovery Plan was published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1976 and served as a valuable guidance for research on the species. It also provides plans to establish protected habitat for Hawaiian species. The final recovery plan published in 1984 recommends continued partnerships with other agencies to protect essential forest bird habitat, continued support in the eradication of introduced plants and animals, habitat management in existing reserves, and enhancement of remaining forest bird habitat. The first steps to protect native Hawaiian forests were taken in 1903 when the Hawaiian Territorial Government created the State Forest Reserve system, which provides essential habitat for the survival of all the endangered forest birds on Maui and Moloka`i. Haleakala National Park, and The Nature Conservancy’s Kamakou and Waikamoi Preserves also provide important habitat for native plants and animals.

Link: Akohekohe

Link: Maui Forest Bird Group
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'APAPANE (Himatone sanguinea)

Endemic

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes alike
. Adults have crimson breast, head and upperparts and black wings and tail. The belly, undertail coverts and vent are white. Often the red coloring is brighter on the head and crown. Bill is slightly curved and is black. The legs are also black. Immatures are like adults but have dull brown coloration where adults are red. (5.25 inches) Calls: A loud up-slurred whistle. At least six call notes recorded. Song: Very variable with at least ten songs recorded and geographical variation too. Varies from sweet, whistled notes, harsh chips and buzzes and all intermixed. Usually sounds rather melancholy.

The most abundant of the native Honeycreepers the 'Apapane can be found on all the Main Islands except Lana'i. Most areas of native forest have this species. Particularly good spots are Pihea Ridge Trail on Kaua'i ( although anywhere from the first Waimea Canyon overlook to Kok'ee and the Alakai can guarantee a sighting), Volcano House in Volcanoes NP and Hakalau Forest NWR on the Big Island and Hosmer Grove and Waikomoi Preserve on Maui. On O'ahu it is more localized but can still be easily seen in Kuli'ou'ou and Ka'alakei Valleys as well as the Aiea Ridge Trail and small numbers can be seen in native forest in the Ko'olau and Waianae Mountains. The most easily observed of all of Hawai'i's endemic forest birds.
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PO'OULI (Melamprosops phaeosoma)

Endemic possibly extinct

Maui

Endemic Resident

Upland Forest

Sexes similar
. Adults are brown above and pale gray below. They have a black mask which extends from the forehead to the throat and chin to a point behind the eye. The crown is gray and the flanks and undertail coverts are cinnamon. The bill is short and black. The legs are long and pale. Immatures are drab brown above and buffy below and have a less extensive black mask. The bill is dark with a white lower mandible which apparently darkens from the base as birds get older. The legs are dark brown. (5.5 inches) Calls: "Chip", thinner than Maui 'Alauahio. Also a whistled "wh-whit". Song: A whispered whistle of ascending "chits" with the last not highest. Also a short song of a series of four "chits" with the third note being the lowest.

The given modern Hawaiian name of PO'OULI refers to its dark head markings and means "black head". It was bestowed by Mary Pukui, who apparently misunderstood the description of the bird. It is supposed to mean "black face" but instead means "black head" which is not accurate.

Unlikely to be seen by birders now and included here for completeness. This
Maui endemic was only discovered in 1973 when nine individuals were found. Possible Po`ouli bones found in 1982 lead scientists to believe that they once existed in the southwest (dry) slopes of Haleakala. There are no other records of this bird’s history, but since 2000 only three birds are known to still exist. It is found in a restricted area on the northeast slope of Haleakala in the East Maui Wilderness all in the Hanawi Natural Area Reserve, and is extremely elusive and ranges widely in its restricted habitat. It is primarily a bird of the undergrowth and understorey of Ohia forest, where this rare bird of the "honeycreeper" family spends most of its time foraging. The species once travelled in small family groups, the Po`ouli glean leaves and bark in the sub-canopy and understorey of forests searching for snails, spiders, and insects. The Po`ouli lives in elevations of 5,000 feet and above. The Po`ouli breeds from February to June, and usually lays one or two eggs. Much of its habitat has been destroyed by pigs and the future is very uncertain for this, the most recently discovered Hawaiian Forest bird. Loss of habitat, predation, and lack of food sources are the primary threats to their survival. The Po`ouli was listed as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on September 25, 1974.

In 2003 efforts continued to capture the last remaining three birds and put them in a captive breeding program at San Diego Zoo, however this had not happened by the end of 2003 and a single bird was observed three times during counts during the CBC week in the Hanawi Area. In September 2004 one female was captured and transferred to a Maui captive breeding facility, however the bird died on November 28th, thus a future for the species looks very doubtful.

Link: Poouli

Link: Maui Forest Bird Group

Link: Po'o-uli

Link: 2004 Po'ouli

Link 2005: 2005 Po'ouli
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HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus)

*Introduced

Ni'ihau; Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Urban

Male
is brown above and gray below. Pale wing bars. Head is off-white with a brown crown, gray forehead, black throat and chestnut nape. Female is gray below and brown above but lacks males head pattern, exhibiting just a slight pale supercilium. Immatures are like females. (6 inches) Calls: Harsh "chip" and "chit". Song: Twittering notes.

The ubiquitous Eurasian House Sparrow (now introduced Worldwide) is found commonly on all the Main Islands and is most often encountered in urban areas, although they also inhabit agricultural areas. This species can easily be found and so no specific locations are listed. Present all year.
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RED-CHEEKED CORDONBLEU (Uraeginthus bengalus)

*Introduced

Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub

Male
is brown above and blue below with brown undertail coverts and a blue tail, which darkens towards the tip. The head is blue on the face and brown on the crown and nape. The ear has a red patch. Eye is dark and bill and legs are pinkish. Females are slightly duller and lack the red ear patch. (5 inches) Calls: Thin inconspicuous "see-eee". Song: High pitched jumble of squeaky and buzzing notes.

This colorful introduced African species was once found on both O'ahu and the Big Island but is now confined to the latter. It is found in the Puu Waawaa Ranch/ Puu Anahulu area on the Big Island but is extremely elusive and may not always be present. Searching areas of long grass is probably the most likely way to secure a sighting as birds feed unobtrusively on the ground. Numbers of this species being recorded has decreased rapidly in the late 1990's early 2000's and the species is harder than ever to observe. Since early November 2003 and into early 2004 at least, Red-Ceeked Cordon-Bleu have been very accommodating for viewing at the 22 mile marker pullout just south of the Puu Waa Waa ranch gate on Hawai'i.
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LAVENDER WAXBILL (Estrilda caerulescans)

*Introduced

O'ahu; Maui (?); Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub; Urban

Sexes are similar
. Lavender colored above and below with a bright crimson rump, tail and rear flanks. A few black and white spots border the red on the flanks. The bill is lavender also. (4.5 inches) Calls: A thin, metallic "chip". Song: A thin "see-see-see-swree".

This introduced African Waxbill can be found on O'ahu, Hawaii and Maui. On Hawai'i they can often be seen at Pu'u Wa'a wa'a Ranch and the nearby Pu'u Anahulu area and also fairly frequently in the Kailua-Kona area. The species appears to be quickly spreading and has been seen recently from Waimea to South Kona, by the City of refuge and have been recorded as far South as Na'alehu and Hawaiian Ocean View Estate in the south-west of the Island. This species is currently likely to be found anywhere in the Kona vicinity. It can also be seen on the lawns of several hotels including King Kamehameha, Kona Surf and the Aston at Keahu. On O'ahu it can be seen in the Honolulu area on lawns and parks where grass is of a suitable length for seeding, but is not widespread. On Maui it has recently become established near to Kealia National Wildlife Refuge, and can be expected to spread more widely in the next few years.
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ORANGE-CHEEKED WAXBILL (Estrilda melpoda)

*Introduced

O'ahu; Maui

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub; Urban

Sexes alike
. Adults are brown above and pale gray below with a gray crown. There is a large orange cheek patch which encompasses the eye. The bill is red-orange. The rump is crimson colored. (4.5 inches) Calls: Like Common Waxbill but heavier. Song: Series of thin whistled notes: "wheee-tititi-whee-tititi-wheee".

This species, introduced from Africa can be seen most easily on O'ahu, although it can be elusive and hard to observe. It can be found in urban areas of Kaneohe, Bay View Golf Course (near the sewage treatment works). Another spot on Oahu where Orange-cheeks have been found regularly is Hoomaluhia Park. Another recent report of Orange-cheeks on O'ahu was in February 2004, when one was reported at Paiko Lagoon. The species was also formerly found in Kapiolani Park and Zoo area, although they have not been reported here since the late 1980s. On Maui they are rather uncommon but may be found along Hansen Road and in Kihei, although probably they are overlooked in other suitable grassy or weedy fields.
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BLACK-RUMPED WAXBILL (Estrilda troglodytes)

*Introduced

Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub

Adults
are very similar to Common Waxbill. Brown above and pale creamy - off-white below with very faint and close barring which is usually not discernible. White undertail coverts and black tail distinguish this species from Common Waxbill. Red eye patch is limited in extent. Black eye and red bill. dark legs. (4 inches) Calls: A loud repeated "cheu-cheu", "chit-chit" or "chihooee". Song: Male: Loud explosive rising "tche-tcheer", "ch-eeer" or "t-chu-weee". Female: Shorter but also explosive "pwich pwich" or an ascending "pwich-chee".

Another introduced African Waxbill, although usually harder to find than the others, it is found only on the Big Island, although also formerly on O'ahu. The Pu'u Anahulu area, Pu'u Waa Waa and South Kohala/North Kona districts are the species favored areas, but wander widely in search of seeding grasses, and precise localities may not hold birds all the time. As with any of the introduced Estrildids finding grasses at the right stage of seeding is the key to seeing the birds. They can be very hard to pick out from accompanying Avadavats and close scrutiny is often required.
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COMMON WAXBILL (Estrilda astrild)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i (?); Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub; Urban

Adults
are very similar to Black-rumped Waxbill but exhibit dark undertail coverts and tail and show distinct barring on the underparts. The crown is also sometimes darker. Juveniles are similar but have dark gray or brown undertail coverts. Red limited to around the eye and cheek and black bills. (4 inches) Calls: Squeaky "jit". Song: "chip-chip-tooee". Also a weak twittering.

This African species is common on O'ahu and can easily be seen in Kapiolani Park and Zoo, as well as Pearl Harbor, the Golf Course at Kaneohe and along the North Shore in the Kahuku area. In the late 1990s a few birds were reported from the Poipu and the Lawai areas on Kaua'i, and it seems as though a small population know exists between here and the Kukui'ula Small Boat Harbor. Birds have also been seen on Maui in the Kealia, Lahaina and Olowalu areas from the 1990s onwards and on Moloka'i a few miles west of Kaunanakai. In November 2002 a flock of at least 12 birds was observed in a Kona garden on Hawai'i, this is the first record of the species from the Big Island. As with several Estrildid species, it appears that Common Waxbills are currently enjoying a small range expansion and more records from areas away from their "traditional" sites, of all Waxbill species, are likely to occur.
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RED AVADAVAT (Amandava amandav)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub; Urban

Males
are red below and on the face and rump and brown above. White spots are present both on the wings and on the underparts. Few white spots on tail. Dark undertail coverts. Females and immatures are brown overall, slightly paler below and have far fewer and less obvious white spots on the wings only. Both sexes have a red bill and dark red legs. (4 inches) Calls: A thin "jeet". Song: A twittering voice.

This introduced Asian bird, sometimes called Strawberry Finch, can be found throughout O'ahu, but is particularly numerous around Pearl Harbor, James campbell NWR and in the Hale'iwa area on the North Shore. On the Big Island they are common in the North Kona/ South Kohala districts and can usually be seen at Puu Anahulu. On Kaua'i the species appears to be restricted to the Koloa Mill/Poipu area and are rather scarce and hard to find, as they tend to feed in small open areas amongst the sugar cane.
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AFRICAN SILVERBILL (Lonchura cantans)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Scrub

Sexes alike
. Head and back are pale brown and the underparts are pale white or off-white. The outer tail and the primaries are black. Rump is black and an important identification feature. Bill is bluey-gray. In flight the pale appearance of the body and the thin dark tail are good features for identification. (4.5 inches) Calls: Thin metallic tinkling and unlike all other introduced estrildid finches in Hawai'i. Song: A quiet and high-pitched House Finch-like song.

This introduced African species has become quite a common Estrildid species on the Big island and is commonly seen in the North Kona/South Kahala districts but can be expected anywhere where it is dry with scrub and grasses. On Maui it is less widespread but can be found in the Kihei area and the (large) area between the airport and Lahaina. They are rather scarce on O'ahu but have been seen in the Diamond Head and Makapuu areas, as well as Ewa Beach and recently in parks near Ala Moana Boulavard. On Kaua'i they are most frequently observed in the South (Poipu) and West (Kekaha) areas. The vicinity of the old Kekaha Sugar Mill has been a fairly productive spot in the past, but with the closing of the Mill in 2000, the area may be developed or not be as attractive to the birds. Polihale is another good spot, but sightings are irregular and it can be hard to see this species on Kaua'i. Searching dry grasslands and the edges of sugar cane fields probably provides the best chance of seeing this species. On Moloka'i and Lana'i found in many areas across the Islands. There is also the possibility that Indian Silverbill (Lonchura malabarica) is present in the Islands, and so all Silverbills are worth investigating. The tail and rump colors are the best distinguishing features. Formerly considered one species, and named Warbling Silverbill.
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NUTMEG MANNIKIN (Lonchura punctulata)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Moloka'i; Lana'i; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Sexes alike
. Brown upperparts with chestnut throat and dark face and forehead. Below the species is paler with a streaked breast and throat. Belly is pale. Immatures are light brown with buffy underparts. Bare parts dark in adults and immatures alike. (4 inches) Calls: Plaintive "chee,ba-hee".

This bird, sometimes called the Ricebird, Spotted Munia, Scaly-breasted Munia, Spice Finch or Spotted Mannikin is an Asian introduction and can be commonly found on all the Main Islands. They can be found in large flocks or small family groups at almost all elevations, from the coast to high elevation forests. Often to be found with Nutmeg Mannikins they are probably the most easily seen of all the introduced Estrildids.
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CHESTNUT MUNIA (Lonchura atricapilla)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Wetland; Open Country; Upland Forest; Lowland Forest; Urban

Adults
: Chestnut colored all over except for black head, nape and upper breast and throat. Heavy conical bill is usually pale blue in adults or pale gray in juveniles. (5 inches) Calls: A monotone "chee". Song: A high pitched "tee-tee". Flocks calling sound like a high pitched "peep"ing mass.

Also known as the Chestnut Mannikin orBlack-headed Munia (also see below), this Asian species has become established due to unauthorized released of cage-birds, and is now easily seen on O'ahu and Kaua'i. On O'ahu it can be most easily seen from Pearl Harbor up to Hale'iwa and along the North Shore to Kahuku. On Kaua'i it can be observed almost anywhere and is present all around the Island, from Ke'e Beach to Polihale, and can often be seen in huge swirling flocks, especially at locations such as Lihue Airfield, Hanalei NWR and Kukui Grove in Lihue. On Kaua'i, at least, liable to be encountered anywhere and in any habitat. On Maui the species is present from Kahului to Pukalani. The Earliest record for Maui was 4th February 1997 when 8 birds (possibly more) were found in a flock of Nutmeg Munias at Hanson Road ponds. They were reported there a few more times in '97, '98 and '99. Fern Duvall reported an "incredible explosion" on the N central isthmus of Maui between June '98 and June '99. The species is also present in small numbers on the Big Island, 6 or 7 birds were first seen between 17th and 20th Aug 1976 with Nutmeg Munias along the lava tubes trail at City of Refuge in Honaunau and the species has slowly spread and can now be seen best near the Volcano Golf Course. There is also one report from Lana'i: 7 birds at Lana'i Airport 17th April 1997.

Taxonomic Status: The Chestnut Mannikin is also referred to in some literature as Black-headed Munia, Tricoloured Mannikin, Tricoloured Munia and Tricoloured Nun, although the form (now species) found in Hawai'i is L. m. atricapilla (formerly jagori), which occurs naturally in the Philippines, Halmahera, Sulu Islands, Borneo, northern and central Sulawesi including Togian, Muna and Butang. This form does not show any white in the plumage and thus the term tricoloured does not really apply. The AOU Checklist 7th edition 1998 lists Chestnut Mannikin (Lonchura malacca) which included both white-breasted subspecies and dark-breasted subspecies. In the 42nd Supplement (July 2000 Auk) the whitebreasted forms were split to a separate species. The nominate form (L. malacca malacca) was the white-breasted subspecies, so that group kept the scientific species name L. malacca with the vernacular name Tricolored Munia. The dark-breasted forms received a new scientific species name L. atricapilla, with the vernacular name Chestnut Munia (i.e. the species name Mannikin was changed to Munia).
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JAVA SPARROW (Padda oryzivora)

*Introduced

Kaua'i; O'ahu; Maui; Hawai'i

Introduced Resident

Open Country; Lowland Forest; Urban

Adults
are gray with black heads, bright white cheeks, bright pink bills and red eye-rings. The feet are also pink. The tail is black. Immatures are duller and browner, have no black markings and have off-white cheeks and pale bills. (6 inches) Calls: A metallic "pik-pik-pik", loud and robust. Song: A series of soft warbles.

An attractive south-east Asian introduction that can be easily seen on O'ahu and Kaua'i, with smaller (but growing) numbers on the Big Island and Maui. On O'ahu it can easily be seen in parks and gardens in Honolulu such as Kapiolani Park and Ala Moana Park. It has also spread out of Honolulu and can be seen in many urban areas along the East and North Shores. On Kaua'i the species is very common at Princeville, especially around the main green where up to 200 birds may be attracted to bird feeders, at Kapa'a and at Kukui Grove in Lihue, although smaller numbers can be seen almost anywhere in the coastal zone from Ke'e Beach, Hanalei and Kilauea in the North to Poipu in the South and Waimea in the West. On Maui the species is increasing its range and can be seen in several areas, e.g. Hana Highway.
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